References
Abuhamdia, Z.
(1988) Speech diversity and language unity: Arabic as an integrating factor. In G. Luciani, & G. Salame (Eds.), The politics of Arab integration, vol. 4 (pp. 33–53). London: Croom Helm.Google Scholar
Adelman, G.
(2011) Arabic: “The language of the future”? Family Security Matters. Retrieved from http://​www​.familysecuritymatters​.org​/publications​/id​.8715​/pub​_detail​.asp
Al Jabry, S. A.
Assmann, A.
(1991) Kultur als Lebenswelt und Monument. In A. Assmann & D. Earth (Eds.), Kultur als Lebenswelt und Monument (pp. 11–25). Frankfurt: Fisher.Google Scholar
Assmann, J.
(1992) Das kulturelle Gedächtnis: Schrift, Erinnerung und politsche Identität in frühen Hochkuturen. Munich: Beck.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Ayoub, G.
(2002) An odyssey of words: Evolution of the Arabic language in the 20th century. Al Jadid. Retrieved from http://​www​.aljadid​.com​/content​/odyssey​-words​-evolution​-arabic​-language​-20th​-century
Brustad, K.
(2015) The question of language. In D. Reynolds (Ed.), The Cambridge companion to modern Arab culture (pp. 19–35). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Calvet, L. J.
(1974) Linguistique et colonialisme: Petit traité de glottophagie. Paris: Bibliotheque scientifique.Google Scholar
Den Heijer, J.
(2012) Introduction: Middle Arabic and Mixed Arabic: A new trend in Arabic studies. In L. Zack, & A. Schippers (Eds.), Middle Arabic and Mixed Arabic: Diachrony and synchrony (pp. 1–25). Brill: Leiden. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Ferguson, C.
(1959) Diglossia. Word, 15, 325–340. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Gavin, M. C., Botero, C. A., Bowern, C., Colwell, R. K., Dunn, M., Dunn, R. R., Gray, R. D., Kirby, K. R., McCarter, J., Powell, A., Rangel, T. F., Stepp, J. R., Trautwein, M. , Verdolin, J. L., & Yanega, G.
(2013) Toward a mechanistic understanding of linguistic diversity. BioScience, 63(7), 524–535. Retrieved from Crossref
Gibran, K.
(1923) The future of the Arabic language. (A. Haydar, Trans. 2002) Retrieved from http://​wordswithoutborders​.org​/article​/from​-the​-future​-of​-the​-arabic​-language (In Arabic: mustaqbalu -l-lughati -l-`arabiyya. In fataawii kibaari -l-kuttaabi wa-l-‘udabaa’i fi mustaqbali – l-lughati – l-`arabiyya (1923) (pp. 83–95). Cairo: ‘Idaaratu -l-Hilaal.
Graddol, D.
(1997) The future of English? A guide to forecasting the popularity of the English language in the 21st century. Retrieved from https://​www​.teachingenglish​.org​.uk​/sites​/teacheng​/files​/learning​-elt​-future​.pdf
(2004) The future of language. Science, 303,1329–1331. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hary, B.
(2012) Judeo-Arabic as a mixed language. In L. Zack, & A. Shippers (Eds.), Middle Arabic and Mixed Arabic: Diachrony and synchrony (pp. 125–143). Brill: Leiden. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Holtorf, C.
(1996) Towards a chronology of megaliths: Understanding monumental time and cultural memory. Journal of European Archeology, 4, 119–152. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2001) Monumental past: The life-histories of megalithic monuments in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Germany). Toronto: CITDPress, University of Toronto at Scarborough.Google Scholar
Lentin, J.
(2008) Middle Arabic. In K. Versteegh (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Arabic Linguistics, Vol. 3. (pp. 215–224). Brill: Leiden.Google Scholar
Lowrey, J., & Stewart, D.
(2009) Essays on Arabic literary biography 1350–1850, vol. II. Wiesbaden: Harrasowitz.Google Scholar
Maamouri, M.
(2003) Arabic literacy. Linguistic Data Consortium, University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved from https://​www​.ldc​.upenn​.edu​/sites​/www​.ldc​.upenn​.edu​/files​/arabic​-literacy​.pdf
Mejdell, G.
(2006) Mixed styles in spoken Arabic in Egypt: Somewhere between order and chaos. Brill: Leiden.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2012) Playing the same game: Notes on comparing spoken contemporary Mixed Arabic and (pre-)modern written Modern Arabic. In L. Zack, & A. Schippers (Eds.), Middle Arabic and Mixed Arabic: Diachrony and synchrony (pp. 235–245). Brill: Leiden. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Mufwene, S.
(2001) The ecology of language evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2010) Globalization and the spread of English: what does it mean to be Anglophone. English Today, 101(26), 57–59. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Parkinson, D.
(1990) Searching for modern fuṣḥa: Real life formal Arabic. Al-`Arabiyya, 24, 31–64.Google Scholar
(1996) Variability in Standard Arabic grammar skills. In A. Elgibali (Ed.), Understanding Arabic. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press.Google Scholar
Ray, P. S.
(1968) Language standardization. In J. Fishman (Ed.), Readings in the Sociology of Language (pp. 754–65). The Hague: Mouton. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Sayed, F. H.
(2006) Transforming education in Egypt: Western influence and domestic policy reform. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Stockwell, P.
(2000) Future talk: One small step towards a chronolinguistics. Nottingham Linguistic Circle, 15, 55–68.Google Scholar
Tiberge, S.
2008, October 14). Sarkozy: “Arabic is the language of the future”. The Brussels Journal. Retrieved from http://​www​.brusselsjournal​.com​/node​/3591
Tucker, C. R.
(2014) Summary and concluding observations. In K. Bailey, & R. M. Damerow, (Eds.), Teaching and learning English in the Arabic-speaking world (178–183) New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
UNESCO Institute of Statistics
(2003) Adult and youth literacy: National, regional and global trends, 1985–2015. Retrieved from http://​www​.uis​.unesco​.org​/Education​/Documents​/literacy​-statistics​-trends​-1985​-2015​.pdf
Van Parijs, P.
(2008) Linguistic diversity as a curse and as a by-product. In X. Arzoz (Ed.), Respecting linguistic diversity in the European Union (pp. 17–46). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Younes, M.
(2007–08) On “i’rab”, power, and language reform in the Arab World. Al-‘Arabiyya, 40/41, 221–241.Google Scholar
Zack, L., & Schippers, A.
(Eds.) (2012) Middle Arabic and Mixed Arabic: Diachrony and synchrony. Brill: LeidenGoogle Scholar