Chapter published in:Variation Rolls the Dice: A worldwide collage in honour of Salikoko S. Mufwene
Edited by Enoch O. Aboh and Cécile B. Vigouroux
[Contact Language Library 59] 2021
► pp. 133–160
Substrate influence in Northern Quechua languages
Quechua language varieties spread northward into parts of Ecuador, Colombia, and Northern Peru, and were adopted as a native language by speakers of earlier Pacific, Highland, and Amazonian languages in a process of language shift. This process started in the fifteenth century with the Inca state, and is still going on in some regions in the Piedemonte, where speakers of smaller languages are acquiring Quechua as a second, and their ultimately primary language. These Quechua varieties underwent numerous changes which this chapter investigates from the perspective of substrate influence, building on knowledge gathered in creole studies. The chapter further discusses the extent to which substrate influence is relevant to all Northern Quechua varieties or only a subset thereof.
Keywords: Norther Quechua varieties, Northern expansion, substrate influence, cafeteria principle, mutual reinforcement
- 2.The sociolinguistic history and the position of Northern Quechua in the Quechuan family
- 3.Theoretical and methodological considerations
- 4.General features of Northern Quechua varieties possibly due to substrate influence
- 4.1Collapse of the genitive and benefactive cases
- 4.2The loss of the inclusive/exclusive distinction
- 4.3Phonological features
- 4.4Nominal reference marking
- 4.5The reinterpretation and reduction of the Quechua copula ka- as a clitic under the possible influence of Chicham
- 4.6The spread in use of a negative existential verb illa-, possibly modelled on Chicham or Barbacoan
- 4.7Change in the status of the evidential
- 5.Highland Ecuadorian Kichwa
- 5.1The development of a desiderative involving the verb “say” in the southern highlands
- 5.2Dual hortative
- 5.3Switch reference in purposive nominalization
- 6.Lowland Kichwa: Intentional or future with “do”
- 7.Colombian Inga
- 7.1The introduction of diminutive or pejorative suffixes
- 7.2The potential marker -ntra
- 7.3Object marking
- 8.Peruvian South Pastaza Quechua
- 8.1Nominal person marking
- 8.2Inalienable kinship
- 8.4Indirect object marking
- 9.Conclusions and discussion
Published online: 12 October 2021
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