We apply the Natural Semantic Metalanguage (NSM) approach (Goddard &
Wierzbicka 2014) to the lexical-semantic analysis of English evaluational adjectives and compare the results with the
picture developed in the Appraisal Framework (Martin & White 2005). The analysis is
corpus-assisted, with examples mainly drawn from film and book reviews, and supported by collocational and statistical information
from WordBanks Online. We propose NSM explications for 15 evaluational adjectives, arguing that they fall into five groups, each
of which corresponds to a distinct semantic template. The groups can be sketched as follows: “First-person thought-plus-affect”,
e.g. wonderful; “Experiential”, e.g. entertaining; “Experiential with bodily reaction”, e.g.
gripping; “Lasting impact”, e.g. memorable; “Cognitive evaluation”, e.g. complex,
excellent. These groupings and semantic templates are compared with the classifications in the Appraisal Framework’s
system of Appreciation. In addition, we are particularly interested in sentiment analysis, the automatic identification of
evaluation and subjectivity in text. We discuss the relevance of the two frameworks for sentiment analysis and other language
1.Background and goals
2.Evaluational adjectives in the Appraisal Framework
3.Explicating evaluational adjectives using NSM
3.1Further details on the NSM approach: Semantic templates
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Goddard, Cliff, Maite Taboada & Radoslava Trnavac
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Taboada, Maite, Marta Carretero & Jennifer Hinnell
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S. Bulgakov, Stanislav, Tatiana A. Belousova, Vita A. Kuzmicheva, Vladimir S. Pugach & Yulia N. Yatsenko
2019. LEXICAL COMBINABILITY OF ADJECTIVES AND NOUNS EXPRESSING ELEMENTS OF APPRAISAL. Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews 7:6 ► pp. 978 ff.
Sadow, Lauren & Kerry Mullan
2020. A Brief Introduction to the Natural Semantic Metalanguage Approach. In Studies in Ethnopragmatics, Cultural Semantics, and Intercultural Communication, ► pp. 13 ff.
Trnavac, Radoslava & Maite Taboada
2020. Positive Appraisal in Online News Comments. In Studies in Ethnopragmatics, Cultural Semantics, and Intercultural Communication, ► pp. 185 ff.
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