Über die verbreitung lexikographischer werke in den Niederlanden und ihre wechselseitige beziehungen mit dem ausland bis zum jahre 1600
The earliest Netherlandic lexicographical works were not only strongly influenced by foreign vocabularies and dictionaries, but they also strongly influenced lexicography abroad. Adaptations of the earliest vocabularies, which mainly aimed at the learning of Latin, were produced in various countries, with the vernacular language adapted to the idiom of each country. In German speaking regions originated for instance the Vocabularius Ex quo (ca. 1400), the Liber Vagatorum> (ca. 1509) and the Synonymorum Collectanea (1513) of Hieronymus Cingularius (ca. 1464–1558), and in Italian speaking regions the polyglot Dilucidissimus Dictionarius (1477 Introito e porta), which afterwards in the Netherlands were provided with a Netherlandic text. In the middle of the 16th century Netherlandic lexicography was strongly influenced by the already modern looking, in a humanistic spirit fashioned and very copious dictionaries of the Italian Ambrosius Calepinus (ca. 1440–1510) and the Frenchman Robert Estienne (1503–1559).But it is also true that several Netherlandic lexicographical works were adapted into other languages. There are for instance German adaptations of the Latin-Netherlandic vocabularies Gemmula Vocabulorum (1484), Vocabularius Optimus (1495), Dictionarium Gemmagemmarum (1511) and Curia Palacium (ca. 1477–85), of the topical dictionary of Petrus Apherdianus (ca. 1520–1580) and of the conversation book of Simon Verepaeus (1522–1598), there are German and Czech adaptations of the topical dictionary of Johannes Murmellius (1480–1517) and German and English adaptations of the synonym dictionary of Simon Pelegromius (ca. 1507–1572). In the Netherlands originated polyglot works, such as the Vocabulare (ca. 1530) of Noel de Berlaimont (died 1531), the Nomenclator (1567) of Hadrianus Junius (1511–1575), as well as the Calepinus Pentaglottos (1545), experienced a large international diffusion.This survey suggests that the initial phase of lexicography in Western and Central European languages can only be adequately understood if seen within an international context.