In view of the evidence that comprehensible input is necessary for language acquisition (Krashen 1980, 1982, Long 1981, 1983, 1985), this study compared the listening comprehension of NNSs' of English on directions to an assembly task given by a NS under two input conditions : (1) Syntactically and semantically premodified input without interaction and (2) Unmodified input with interaction.Two hypotheses were tested in the study. First, it was predicted that interaction in Condition (2) would lead to even greater syntactic and semantic modification of input than was built in a priori in Condition (1) and second, that NNSs' comprehension of input in Condition (2) would exceed that in Condition (1). Both hypotheses were supported.Analysis of the data indicated that the most significant aids to comprehension brought about by interaction were increased quantity and redundancy of input. Several specific interactional modifications, such as confirmation and comprehension checks and clarification requests were also shown to be critical factors in input comprehension. However, a reduction in the syntactic complexity of the input was observed to play no significant role in its comprehension.
1995. Reconsidering the Role of Interaction and Input in Second Language Acquisition. Language Learning 45:1 ► pp. 141 ff.
Davin, Kristin, Francis J. Troyan, Richard Donato & Ashley Hellman
2011. Research on the Integrated Performance Assessment in an Early Foreign Language Learning Program. Foreign Language Annals 44:4 ► pp. 605 ff.
Del Pilar García Mayo, María
2002. The effectiveness of two form‐focused tasks in advanced EFL pedagogy. International Journal of Applied Linguistics 12:2 ► pp. 156 ff.
Derwing, Tracey M.
1989. Information Type and Its Relation to Nonnative Speaker Comprehension*. Language Learning 39:2 ► pp. 157 ff.
2022. Rod Ellis's essential bookshelf: Focus on form. Language Teaching► pp. 1 ff.
1998. Apples and Oranges: Or, Why Apples Are Not Orange and Don't Need to Be A Response to Firth and Wagner. The Modern Language Journal 82:1 ► pp. 83 ff.
Gass, Susan M.
2003. Input and Interaction. In The Handbook of Second Language Acquisition, ► pp. 224 ff.
1992. Research on language learning and teaching: 1991. Language Teaching 25:3 ► pp. 139 ff.
2013. Interactional features of repair negotiation in NS–NNS interaction on two task types: Information gap and personal information exchange. Linguistics and Education 24:2 ► pp. 165 ff.
Long, Michael H.
1996. The Role of the Linguistic Environment in Second Language Acquisition. In Handbook of Second Language Acquisition, ► pp. 413 ff.
Moradi, Arezoo & Mohammad Taghi Farvardin
2020. Negotiation of meaning by mixed‐proficiency dyads in face‐to‐face and synchronous computer‐mediated communication. TESOL Journal 11:1
2006. Language Contact and Confidence in Second Language Listening Comprehension: A Pilot Study of Advanced' Learners of German. Foreign Language Annals 39:2 ► pp. 255 ff.
2014. A Classroom View of Negotiation of Meaning With EFL Adult Mexican Pupils. SAGE Open 4:2 ► pp. 215824401453594 ff.
1988. Interlanguage Adjustments as an Outcome of NS‐NNS Negotiated Interaction. Language Learning 38:1 ► pp. 45 ff.
1988. Communicative competence and literacy. Reading Research and Instruction 27:3 ► pp. 1 ff.
1991. Classroom interaction, negotiation, and comprehension: Redefining relationships. System 19:4 ► pp. 437 ff.
1994. Research on Negotiation: What Does It Reveal About Second‐Language Learning Conditions, Processes, and Outcomes?. Language Learning 44:3 ► pp. 493 ff.
Pica, Teresa & Catherine Doughty
1985. The Role of Group Work in Classroom Second Language Acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 7:2 ► pp. 233 ff.
Pica, Teresa, Lloyd Holliday, Nora Lewis & Lynelle Morgenthaler
1989. Comprehensible Output as an Outcome of Linguistic Demands on the Learner. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 11:1 ► pp. 63 ff.
1988. Conversational Analysis in L2 Acquisition and Teaching. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 9 ► pp. 72 ff.
2007. Assessing CLIL at Primary School: A Longitudinal Study. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 10:5 ► pp. 582 ff.
2004. COMPUTER-MEDIATED NEGOTIATED INTERACTION AND LEXICAL ACQUISITION. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 26:03
Soler, Eva Alcón
2002. Relationship between teacher-led versus learners’ interaction and the development of pragmatics in the EFL classroom. International Journal of Educational Research 37:3-4 ► pp. 359 ff.
Van Den Branden, Kris
2000. Does Negotiation of Meaning Promote Reading Comprehension? A Study of Multilingual Primary School Classes. Reading Research Quarterly 35:3 ► pp. 426 ff.
1996. Foreign language acquisition through interaction — A critical review of research on conversational adjustments. Journal of Pragmatics 26:2 ► pp. 215 ff.
2004. Interlinguistic Variation and Similarity in Second Language Speech Act Behavior. The Modern Language Journal 88:1 ► pp. 102 ff.
Yule, George & Maggie Powers
1994. Investigating the communicative outcomes of task-based interaction. System 22:1 ► pp. 81 ff.
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 27 november 2023. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers.
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