A Corpus Linguistic Approach to Literary Language and Characterization

Virginia Woolf's The Waves

ISBN 9789027234070 | EUR 99.00 | USD 149.00
ISBN 9789027270429 | EUR 99.00 | USD 149.00
This book focusses on computer methodologies as a way of investigating language and character in literary texts. Both theoretical and practical, it surveys investigations into characterization in literary linguistics and personality in social psychology, before carrying out a computational analysis of Virginia Woolf’s experimental novel The Waves. Frequencies of grammatical and semantic categories in the language of the six speaking characters are analyzed using Wmatrix software developed by UCREL at Lancaster University. The quantitative analysis is supplemented by a qualitative analysis into recurring patterns of metaphor. The author concludes that these analyses successfully differentiate all six characters, both synchronically and diachronically, and claims that this methodology is also applicable to the study of personality in non-literary language. The book, written in a clear and accessible style, will be of interest to post-graduate students and academics in linguistics, stylistics, literary studies, psychology and also computational approaches.
[Linguistic Approaches to Literature, 18]  2014.  xxi, 277 pp.
Publishing status: Available
Table of Contents
List of conventions
List of figures and tables
List of appendixes
List of concordances
1. Introduction
2. Virginia Woolf's The Waves
3. Literature review
4. Corpus approaches to the study of language and literature
5. Methodology
6. Character differentiation through word-classes
7. Character differentiation: Semantic fields
8. Conclusion
Author index
Subject index
“This book presents an original and systematic approach to characterisation in Virginia Woolf’s The Waves, and provides an excellent demonstration of how corpus-based methods can address issues relevant to both stylisticians and literary critics.”
“This interesting and clearly written book describes a quantitative study of the individual characters’ spoken words in Virginia Woolf’s “The Waves”. Both technical details of the computer packages and statistical tests used and a suitable literary analysis of the book are brought together, including a discussion of why the narrative structure of “The Waves” makes it particularly amenable to a quantitative analysis. All the steps in the analysis are carefully explained, including the pre-processing of the original corpus, part of speech and semantic tagging using the Wmatrix tool developed by Paul Rayson at Lancaster University, the visualisation of the output in Microsoft Excel, and a statistical analysis of character idiolects using the Log-Likelihood measure. The analysis is both synchronic, comparing the speeches of the individual characters who appear in the book, and diachronic, following changes in the characters’ speech throughout their lifetimes. The findings show that the characters are indeed differentiated and that these differences are more pronounced during their adolescence and in later life. Since previous critics using traditional analyses have claimed to have found no language differences between the six characters, this book shows how a macroscopic, quantitative analysis of a literary work can provide evidence for language distinctions that a “naked eye” reading might miss. The methodology described in this book is of general applicability to corpus studies of literary texts, and thus will inspire future work in computational stylometry. However, rather than comparing the frequencies of lexical words to compare speech samples, Balossi has taken the relatively novel approach of comparing the frequencies of parts of speech and semantic fields. A particularly useful feature of this book is the thorough use of footnotes to guide the reader to each of the online linguistic resources mentioned in the book.”
“This book contains an in-depth and comprehensive analysis of Virginia Woolf's The Waves. It exploits the full power of a multidisciplinary approach using corpus linguistics and computational methods to investigate the linguistic differentiation of the six characters in the novel and goes well beyond the simple counting of word frequencies or function words. But the author also goes further to locate the study in the appropriate contexts of the cognitive model of characterization, authorship attribution, cognitive metaphor theory, stylistics and literary criticism. The author is to be congratulated on taking all these disparate theoretical and practical elements and weaving them together in such an interesting book. Not only will this book appeal to those interested in the work of Woolf but also those who wish to learn how to apply similar methods more widely in the study of characterization in literature.”
“A Corpus Linguistic Approach to Literary Language and Characterization Virginia Woolf's The Waves is a strong and valuable contribution to the computational study of literature. I especially like the thoroughness of the book’s treatment of earlier criticism on The Waves. The close attention to that criticism helps to focus the study, which also effectively presents some strong corrective arguments against some strains within it. The book is an excellent partial answer to Stephen Ramsay’s claim that trying to solve the question of whether the voices are different is a category mistake: it shows rather definitively that there “really”are different voices. I will want to go back over the book more closely later, but I especially appreciated chapter 7: in spite of some doubts I have about the semantic categorization that the chapter is based upon (even after the reasonable corrections offered there), I think the closer attention to the lexis of the novel in chapter 7 makes it more satisfying than the analysis of categories in chapter 6. The multiple methods and theories used in the book seem a bit surprising at first, but it makes very good use of a variety of approaches and does a good job of wrapping them up into an effective and persuasive final package.”
Cited by

Cited by 9 other publications

Brooke, Julian, Adam Hammond & Graeme Hirst
2016. Using Models of Lexical Style to Quantify Free Indirect Discourse in Modernist Fiction. Digital Scholarship in the Humanities  pp. fqv072 ff. Crossref logo
Guo, Hua
2017. Speech presentation: A preliminary review from multiple perspectives. Journal of Language and Cultural Education 5:1  pp. 182 ff. Crossref logo
Jones, Henry
2019. Shifting characterizations of the ‘Common People’ in modern English retranslations of Thucydides’ History of the Peloponnesian War: a corpus-based analysis. Palgrave Communications 5:1 Crossref logo
Jones, Henry
2020. Retranslating Thucydides as a scientific historian. Target. International Journal of Translation Studies 32:1  pp. 59 ff. Crossref logo
Montoro, Rocío
2015. The Year’s Work in stylistics 2014. Language and Literature: International Journal of Stylistics 24:4  pp. 355 ff. Crossref logo
OMAR, Abdulfattah
2021. Identifying themes in fiction: A centroid-based lexical clustering approach. Dil ve Dilbilimi Çalışmaları Dergisi  pp. 580 ff. Crossref logo
Piao, Scott, Fraser Dallachy, Alistair Baron, Jane Demmen, Steve Wattam, Philip Durkin, James McCracken, Paul Rayson & Marc Alexander
2017. A time-sensitive historical thesaurus-based semantic tagger for deep semantic annotation. Computer Speech & Language 46  pp. 113 ff. Crossref logo
Reali, Florencia
2020. Emotion metaphors in James Joyce’s A Portrait of the artist as a young man . Journal of Literary Semantics 49:1  pp. 41 ff. Crossref logo
Smith, Nicholas & Cathleen Waters
2019. Variation and change in a specialized register. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics 24:2  pp. 169 ff. Crossref logo

This list is based on CrossRef data as of 14 october 2021. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them.



Abbott, Porter H.
1993Character and modernism: Reading Woolf writing Woolf. New Literary History 24(2): 393–405. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Abdi, Hervé
2003Multivariate analysis. In Encyclopedia for Research Methods for the Social Sciences , Michael S. Lewis-Beck, Alan Bryman & Tim L. Futing (eds), 699–702. Thousand Oaks CA: Sage.Google Scholar
Abel, Elizabeth
1989 Virginia Woolf and the Fictions of Psychoanalysis . Chicago IL: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
1992Narrative structure(s) and female development: The case of Mrs Dalloway. In Virginia Woolf , Rachel Bowlby (ed.), 77–101. New York NY: Longman.Google Scholar
Adolphs, Svenja
2006 Introducing Electronic Text Analysis: A Practical Guide for Language and Literary Studies . Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
Allport, Gordon W.
1985The historical background of social psychology. In The Handbook of Social Psychology , Vol. 1, 3rd edn, Lindzey Gardner & Elliot Aronson (eds), 1–46. New York NY: Random House.Google Scholar
Andersen, Susan M. & Klatzky, Roberta L.
1987Traits and social stereotypes: Levels of categorization in person perception. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 53(2): 235–246. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Andersen, Susan M. & Cole, Steve W.
1990“Do I Know You?”: The role of significant others in general social perception. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 59(3): 384–399. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Andersen, Susan M., Klatzky, Roberta L. & Murray, John
1990Traits and social stereotypes: Efficiency differences in social information processing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 59(2): 192–201. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Apter, Terri E.
1979 Virginia Woolf: A Study of her Novels . New York NY: New York University Press.Google Scholar
Archer, Dawn
2007Computer-assisted literary stylistics: The state of the field. In Contemporary Stylistics , Marina Lambrou & Peter Stockwell (eds), 244–256 . London: Continuum.Google Scholar
Archer, Dawn, Wilson, Andrew & Rayson, Paul
2002Introduction to the USAS category system, 1–37. http://​ucrel​.lancs​.ac​.uk​/usas​/usas%20guide​.pdf> (28 July 2012).
Archer, Dawn, Culpeper, Jonathan & Davies, Matthew
2008Pragmatic annotation. In Corpus Linguistics: An International Handbook , Vol. 1 , Anke Lüdeling & Merja Kytö (eds), 613–642. Berlin: De Gruyter.Google Scholar
Archer, Dawn, Culpeper, Jonathan & Rayson, Paul
2009Love – ‘A familiar of a devil?’ An exploration of key domains in Shakespeare’s comedies and tragedies. In What’s in a Word-list? Investigating Word Frequency and Keyword Extraction , Dawn Archer (ed.), 136–157. Farnham: Ashgate.Google Scholar
Argamon, Shlomo & Levitan, Shlomo
2005Measuring the usefulness of function words for authorship attribution, 1–3. The 2005 ACH/ALLC Conference . Victoria, BC, Canada.Google Scholar
1902 Aristotle on the Art of Poetry , trans. by Ingram Bywater. Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
Aspeslagh, Ellen
1999Language as ideology: Transitivity and ergativity in the female voices of Virginia Woolf’s The Waves, 1–27. [PALA (Poetics and Linguistic Association) Occasional Papers 10]. http://​www​.pala​.ac​.uk​/resources​/op​/Paper10​.pdf (10 March 2012).
Aston, Guy
2011Applied corpus linguistics and the learning experience [Studies in Corpus Linguistics 48]. . In Perspectives on Corpus Linguistics, Vander Viana, Sonia Zyngier & Geoff Barnbrook (eds), 1–16.Amsterdam: John Benjamins CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Auerbach, Erich
1992The Brown Stocking. In Virginia Woolf , Rachel Bowlby (ed.), 20–45. New York NY: Longman.Google Scholar
Baayen, Harald R.
2008 Analysing Linguistic Data: A Practical Introduction to Statistics Using R . Cambridge: CUP. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Balossi, Giuseppina
1997Character between Structure and Style in Lowry’s short Story Gin and Goldenrod. MA thesis, Lancaster University.Google Scholar
Barthes, Roland, Greimas, Algirdas J., Bremond, Claude, Eco, Umberto, Morin, Violette, Metz, Christian, Todorov, Tzvetan & Genette, Gerard
1987. L’Analisi del Racconto, trans. by Luigi Del Grosso Destreri, Paolo Fabbri & Adriano Aprà, 4th edn. Milano: Bompiani.Google Scholar
Bartlett, Frederic C.
[1932] 1995  Remembering: A Study in Experimental and Social Psychology . Cambridge: CUP. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bednarek, Monika
2011Expressivity in televisual characterization. Language and Literature 20(1): 3–21. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bell, Quentin
(ed.) 1973 Virginia Woolf: A Biography , Vol. 1, Vol. 2. London: The Hogarth Press.Google Scholar
Bennett, Joan
1964 Virginia Woolf: Her Art as a Novelist , 2nd edn. Cambridge: CUP.Google Scholar
1970Characters and human beings. In Critics on Virginia Woolf , Jacqueline E. M. Latham (ed.), 17–20. Coral Gables FL: University of Miami Press.Google Scholar
Biber, Douglas
1985Investigating macroscopic textual variation through multi-feature/multi-dimensional analyses. Linguistics 23(2): 337–360. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
1988 Variation across Speech and Writing . Cambridge: CUP. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
1993Using register-diversified corpora for general language studies. Computational Linguistics 19(2): 219–242.Google Scholar
1995 Dimensions in Register Variation . Cambridge: CUP. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2004Conversation text types: A multi-dimensional analysis. JADT, 7es Journées internationales d’Analyse statistique des Données Textuelles , 1–34. http://​lexicometrica​.univ​-paris3​.fr​/jadt​/jadt2004​/pdf​/JADT​_000​.pdf> (13 June 2013).
2011Corpus linguistics and the study of literature: Back to the future? Scientific Study of Literature 1(1): 15–23. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Biber, Douglas, Conrad, Susan & Reppen, Randi
1998 Corpus Linguistics: Investigating Language Structure and Use . Cambridge: CUP. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bishop, Edward L.
1987Metaphor and the subversive process of Virginia Woolf’s essays. Style 21(4): 573–588.Google Scholar
1991 The Waves: “A fin in a waste of waters.” In Virginia Woolf , 98–115. ­London: MacMillan Education.Google Scholar
Blackstone, Bernard
1949 Virginia Woolf: A Commentary . London: The Hogarth Press.Google Scholar
1970Bernard’s summing-up. In Critics on Virginia Woolf , Jacqueline E. M. Latham (ed.), 99–102. Coral Gables FL: University of Miami Press.Google Scholar
Bockting, Irene
1994a Characters and Personality in the Novels of William Faulkner: A Study in Psychostylistics . Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam Press.Google Scholar
1994bMind style as an interdisciplinary approach to characterisation in Faulkner. Language and Literature 3(3): 157–174.Google Scholar
Booker, Keith M.
1991Tradition, authority and subjectivity: Narrative constitution of the self in The Waves . Literature Interpretation Theory 3(1): 33–55. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bowlby, Rachel
(ed.) 1992 Virginia Woolf , 1–19. New York NY: Longman.Google Scholar
Boyd, Michael
1983 The Reflexive Novel: Fiction as a Critique . Lewisburg PA: Bucknell University Press.Google Scholar
Bradbrook, Muriel C.
1963Notes on the Style of Mrs. Woolf. Scrutiny 1: 33–38.Google Scholar
Bradley, Andrew C.
[1904] 1960  Shakespearean Tragedy: Lectures on Hamlet, Othello, King Lear, Macbeth, 2nd edn. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
Brewer, William F. & Nakamura, Glenn V.
1984The nature and function of schemas. In Handbook of Social Cognition , Vol. 1, Robert S. Wyer, Jr. & Thomas K. Srull (eds), 119–160. Hillsdale NJ. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
Briggs, Julia
(ed.) 1994 Virginia Woolf: Introduction to the Major Works . London: Virago Press.Google Scholar
1995Virginia Woolf and “The proper writing of lives.” In John Batchelor (ed.), The Art of Literary Biography, 245–265. Oxford: OUP. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2008Virginia Woolf meets Sigmund Freud. Canvas 18: 13–28. http://​www​.charleston​.org​.uk> (20 July 2013).
Brown, Penelope & Levinson, Stephen C.
1987 Politeness: Some Universals in Language Usage . Cambridge: CUP.Google Scholar
Brun, Georg, Doguoglu, Ulvi & Kuenzle, Dominique
2008 Epistemology and Emotions . Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
Burrows, John F.
1987 Computation into Criticism: A Study of Jane Austen’s Novels and an Experiment in Method . Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
1992Computers and the study of literature. In Computers and Written Texts: An Applied Perspective , Christopher S. Butler (ed.), 167–204. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
2003Questions of authorship: Attribution and beyond. Computers and the Humanities 37(1): 5–32. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2007All the way through: Testing for authorship in different frequency strata. Literary and Linguistic Computing 22(1): 27–47. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Campbell, Sherlock R. & Pennebaker, James W.
2003The secret life of pronouns: Flexibility in writing style and physical health. Psychological Science 14(1): 60–65. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Cantor, Nancy & Mischel, Walter
1979Prototypes in person perception. In Advances in Experimental Social Psychology , Vol. 12, Leonard Berkowitz (ed.), 3–52. New York NY: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Caramagno, Thomas C.
1992 The Flight of the Mind: Virginia Woolf’s Art and Manic-Depressive Illness . Berkeley CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Carter, Jason, Fengl, Kristina & Moore, Betty
1997Virginia Woolf’s The Waves . http://​www​.uah​.edu​/woolf​/waves​.html> (10 April 2011).
Caughie, Pamela L.
1991 Virginia Woolf and Postmodernism: Literature in Quest and Question of Itself, 62–90. Urbana IL: University of Illinois.Google Scholar
Chatman, Seymour
1972On the formalist-structuralist theory of character. Journal of Literary Semantics 1: 57–79. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
1978 Story and Discourse: Narrative Structure in Fiction and Film . Ithaca IL: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Chomsky, Noam
1957 Syntactic Structures . Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Chung, Cindy K. & Pennebaker, James W.
2007The psychological functions of function words. In Social Communication , Klaus Fiedler (ed.), 343–359. New York NY: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
2008Revealing dimensions of thinking in open-ended descriptions: An automated meaning extraction method for natural language. Journal of Research in Personality 42: 96–132. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Cohen, Gillian, Kiss, George & Le Voi, Martin
1993 Memory: Current Issues , 2nd edn. Philadelphia PA: Open University Press.Google Scholar
Colley, Ann & Todd, Zazie
2002Gender-linked differences in the style and content of e-mails to friends. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 21(4): 380–392. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Corns, Thomas N.
1991Computers in the humanities: Methods and applications in the study of English literature. Literary and Linguistic Computing 6(2): 127–130. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Culler, Jonathan
1975 Structuralist Poetics: Structuralism, Linguistics and the Study of Literature . London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Culpeper, Jonathan
1996Inferring character from text: Attribution theory and foregrounding theory. Poetics 23: 335–361. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2001 Language and Characterisation: People in Plays and Other Texts . ­Harlow: Longman.Google Scholar
2002Computers, language and characterisation: An analysis of six characters in Romeo and Juliet . In Conversation in Life and in Literature: Papers from the ASLA Symposium [Association Suedoise de Linguistique Appliquee (ASLA) 15], Ulla Melander-Marttala, Carin Östman & Merja Kytö (eds), 11–30. Uppsala: Universitetstryckeriet.Google Scholar
2009Keyness: Words, parts-of-speech and semantic categories in the character-talk of Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics 14(1): 29–59. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Daiches, David
1960 The Novel and the Modern World . Chicago IL: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
DeForest, Mary & Johnson, Eric
2001The density of Latinate words in the speeches of Jane Austen’s characters. Literary and Linguistic Computing 16(4): 389–401. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Deignan, Alice
2005 Metaphor and Corpus Linguistics [Converging Evidence in Linguistic Research 6]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2008Corpus linguistics and metaphor. In The Cambridge Handbook of Metaphor and Thought , Raymond W. Gibbs Jr. (ed.), 280–294. Cambridge: CUP. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
DeSalvo, Louise
1989 Virginia Woolf: The Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse on her Life and Work . Boston MA: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
van Dijk, Teun A.
1988Social cognition, social power and social discourse. Text 8(1–2): 129–157.Google Scholar
Dixon, Peter & Bortolussi, Marisa
2011The scientific study of literature: What can, has, and should be done. Scientific Study of Literature 1(1): 59–71. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Dunning, Ted
1993Accurate methods for the statistics of surprise and coincidence. Computational Linguistics 19(1): 61–74.Google Scholar
Eder, Jens, Jannidis, Fotis & Schneider, Ralf
(eds) 2010 Characters in Fictional Worlds: Understanding Imaginary Beings in Literature, Film, and Other Media . Berlin: De Gruyter. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2010Character in fictional world: An introduction. In Characters in Fictional Worlds: Understanding Imaginary Beings in Literature, Film, and Other Media, Jens Eder, Fotis Jannidis & Ralf Schneider (eds), 3–66.Berlin: De GruyterGoogle Scholar
Eliot, Thomas S.
1941Virginia Woolf. Horizon: A Review of Literature and Art , Cyril Connolly (ed.), Vol. III, 13: 313–316.Google Scholar
Emmott, Catherine
1997 Narrative Comprehension: A Discourse Perspective . Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
2002The experience of reading: Cognition, style, affect and social space. In Textual Secrets: The Message of the Medium , Szilvia Csábi & Judit Zerkowitz (eds), 29–41. Budapest: Eötvös Loránd University.Google Scholar
Enkvist, Nils E.
1973 Linguistic Stylistics . The Hague: Mouton.Google Scholar
Eysenck, Michael W. & Keane, Mark T.
1990 Cognitive Psychology: A Student’s Handbook . ­Hillsdale NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
Fekete, Sandor
2002The internet – A new source of data on suicide, depression and anxiety: A preliminary study. Archives of Suicide Research 6: 351–361. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Fillmore, Charles
1975An alternative to checklist theories of meaning. The Berkeley Linguistics Society 1: 123–131.Google Scholar
Firth, John R.
1957 Papers in Linguistics 1934–1951. Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
Fishelov, David
1990Types of character, characteristics of types. Style 24(3): 422–439.Google Scholar
Fiske, Susan T.
1998Stereotyping, prejudice and discrimination. In The Handbook of Social Psychology , Vol. 2, 4th edn, Daniel T. Gilbert, Susan T. Fiske & Lindzey Gardner (eds), 357–411. New York NY: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
Fiske, Susan T. & Neuberg, Steven L.
1990A continuum of impression formation, from category-based to individuating processes: Influences of information and motivation on attention and interpretation. In Advances in Experimental Social Psychology , Vol. 23, Mark P. Zanna (ed.), 1–74. New York NY: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Fiske, Susan T. & Taylor, Shelley E.
1991 Social Cognition , 2nd edn. New York NY: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
Flint, Kate
1994 The Waves . In Virginia Woolf: Introduction to the Major Works , Julia Briggs (ed.), 219–247. London: Virago Press.Google Scholar
Fludernik, Monika, Freeman, Donald C. & Freeman, Margaret H.
1999Metaphor and beyond: An introduction. Poetics Today 20(3): 383–396.Google Scholar
Forster, Edward M.
[1927] 1990  Aspects of the Novel . Harmondsworth: Penguin.Google Scholar
Fowler, Roger
1977 Linguistics and the Novel . London: Methuen.Google Scholar
1996 Linguistic Criticism, 2nd edn. Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
Freeman, Donald C.
1995Catch[ing] the nearest way: Macbeth and cognitive metaphor. Journal of Pragmatics 24(6): 689–708. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
1999“The rack dislimns:” Schema and metaphorical pattern in Anthony and Cleopatra . Poetics Today 20(3): 443–460.Google Scholar
Freud, Sigmund.
[1900] 1913  The Interpretation of Dreams , trans. by A. A. Brill, 3rd edn. New York NY: Macmillan. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Garside, Roger
1987The CLAWS word-tagging system. In The Computational Analysis of English: A Corpus-based Approach , Roger Garside, Geoffrey Leech & Geoffrey Sampson (eds), 30–41. London: Longman.Google Scholar
1995Grammatical tagging of the spoken part of the British National Corpus: A progress report. In Spoken English on Computer: Transcription, Mark-up and Application , Geoffrey Leech, Greg Myers & Jenny Thomas (eds), 161–167. Harlow: Longman.Google Scholar
1996The robust tagging of unrestricted text: The BNC experience. In Using Corpora for Language Research: Studies in Honour of Geoffrey Leech , Jenny Thomas & Mick Short (eds), 167–180. London: Longman.Google Scholar
Garside, Roger, Leech, Geoffrey & McEnery, Anthony
(eds) 1997 Corpus Annotation: Linguistic Information from Computer Text Corpora . London: Longman.Google Scholar
Garside, Roger & Smith, Nicholas
1997A hybrid grammatical tagger: CLAWS4. In Corpus Annotation: Linguistic Information from Computer Text Corpora , Roger Garside, Geoffrey Leech & Anthony McEnery (eds), 102–121. London: Longman.Google Scholar
Goldman, Jane
(ed) 1997 Virginia Woolf: To the Lighthouse, The Waves . Cambridge: Icon Books.Google Scholar
1998 The Feminist Aesthetics of Virginia Woolf: Modernism and Post-Impressionism . Cambridge: CUP.Google Scholar
Goossens, Louis
1990Metaphtonymy: The interaction of metaphor and metonymy in expressions for linguistic action. In Metaphor and Metonymy in Comparison and Contrast, René Dirven & Ralf Pörings (eds), 349–377. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Gorsky, Susan
1972“The Central Shadow:” Characterization in The Waves . Modern Fiction Studies 18(3): 449–466.Google Scholar
Gottschalk, Louis A. & Gleser, Goldine C.
1969 The Measurement of Psychological States through the Content Analysis of Verbal Behavior . Berkeley CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Gottschall, Jonathan
2008 Literature, Science, and a New Humanities . Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Graham, John W.
1970Time in the novels of Virginia Woolf. In Critics on Virginia Woolf , ­Jacqueline E. M. Latham (ed.), 28–44. Coral Gables FL: University of Miami Press.Google Scholar
1975Point of view in The Waves: Some service of the style. In Virginia Woolf: A Collection of Criticism , Thomas S. W. Lewis (ed.), 94–112. New York NY: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
Graham, John W.
(ed.) 1976 The Waves: The Two Holograph Drafts . London: The Hogarth Press.Google Scholar
Graham, John W.
1983Manuscript revision and the heroic theme of The Waves . Twentieth Century Literature 29(3): 312–332. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Green, Bob
2004Personal construct psychology and content analysis. Personal Construct Theory and Practice 1: 82–91.Google Scholar
Greimas, Algirdas J.
1966 Sémantique Structurale . Paris: Larousse.Google Scholar
Grice, Paul H.
1975Logic and conversation. In Syntax and Semantics , Vol. 3, Peter Cole & Jerry Morgan (eds), 41–58. New York NY: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Guiguet, Jean
1965 Virginia Woolf and Her Works, trans. by Jean Stewart. London: The Hogarth Press.Google Scholar
1970 The Waves . In Critics on Virginia Woolf , Jacqueline E. M. Latham (ed.), 88–95. Coral Gables FL: University of Miami Press.Google Scholar
1971Characters and human relations. In Virginia Woolf: A Collection of Critical Essays , Claire Sprague (ed.), 40–50. Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
Halliday, M. A. K.
1966Lexis as a linguistic level. Journal of Linguistics 2(1): 57–67. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
1971Linguistic function and literary style: An inquiry into the language of William Golding’s The Inheritors . In Literary Style: A Symposium , Seymour Chatman (ed.), 330–365. Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
Hamilton, David L. & Gifford, Robert K.
1976Illusory correlation in interpersonal perception: A cognitive basis of stereotypic judgments. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 12(4): 392–407. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hardy, Donald E.
2007a The Body in Flannery O’Connor’s Fiction: Computational Technique and Linguistic Voice . Columbia SC: University of South Carolina.Google Scholar
2007bCorpus stylistics as a discovery procedure. In Literature and Stylistics for Language Learners: Theory and Practice, Greg Watson & Sonia Zyngier (eds), 79–90. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
Harper, Howard
1982 The Waves. Between Language and Silence: The Novels of Virginia Woolf , 204–251. Baton Rouge LA: Louisiana State University Press.Google Scholar
Hartman, Geoffrey H.
1970Virginia’s Web. In Beyond Formalism: Literary Essays (1958–1970), 71–84. New Haven CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Harvey, William J.
1965 Character and the Novel . London: Chatto & Windus.Google Scholar
Havard-Williams, Peter & Havard-Williams, Margaret
1953Bateau Ivre: The symbol of the sea in Virginia Woolf’s The Waves . English Studies 34(1–6): 9–17. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Heidbrink, Henriette
2010Fictional characters in literary and media studies. A survey of the research. In Characters in Fictional Worlds: Understanding Imaginary Beings in Literature, Film, and Other Media, Jens Eder, Fotis Jannidis & Ralf Schneider (eds), 4–67.Berlin: De GruyterGoogle Scholar
Heine, Elizabeth
1972The evolution of the interludes in The Waves . Virginia Woolf Quarterly 1(1): 60–80.Google Scholar
Hild, Allison
1994Community/communication in Woolf’s The Waves: The language of motion. Journal of Narrative Technique 24(1): 69–79.Google Scholar
Hite, Molly
2000Virginia Woolf’s two bodies. Genders Online Journal 31: 1–22. <http://​www​.genders​.org​/g31​/g31​_hite​.html> (10 July 2012).
Ho, Yufang
2011 Corpus Stylistics in Principles and Practice: A Stylistic Exploration of John Fowles’ The Magus . London: Continuum.Google Scholar
Hogenraad, Robert
2003The words that predict the outbreak of wars. Empirical Studies of the Arts 21(1): 5–20. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2005What the words of war can tell us about the risk of war. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology 11(2): 137–151. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hogenraad, Robert, McKenzie, Dean P. & Martindale, Colin
1997The enemy within: Autocorrelation bias in content analysis of narratives. Computers and the Humanities 30(6): 433–439 ( Language Resources and Evaluation since 2005– ). CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hogenraad, Robert, McKenzie, Dean P. & Péladeau, Norman
2003Force and influence in content analysis: The production of new social knowledge. Quality and Quantity 37(3): 221–238. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hoover, David L.
1999 Language and Style in The Inheritors . Lanham MD: University Press of America.Google Scholar
2003Another perspective on vocabulary richness. Computers and the Humanities 37(2): 151–178. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2004Frequent collocations and authorial style. Literary and Linguistic Computing 18(3): 261–268. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2007aQuantitative analysis and literary studies. In A Companion to Digital Literary Studies , Ray Siemens & Susan Schreibman (eds), 517–533. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
2007bCorpus stylistics, stylometry, and the styles of Henry James. Style 41(2): 174–203.Google Scholar
Hoover, David L., Culpeper, Jonathan & O’Halloran, Kieran
2014 Digital Literary Studies: Corpus Approaches to Poetry, Prose and Drama . London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Hori, Masahiro
2004 Investigating Dickens’ Style. A Collocational Analysis . Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Howard, Stephen
2007The lady in the looking-glass: Reflections on the self in Virginia Woolf. Journal of International Women’s Studies 8(2): 44–54.Google Scholar
Hudson, Richard
1994About 37% of word-tokens are nouns. Language 70(2): 331–339. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hussey, Mark
1986 The Singing of the Real World: the Philosophy of Virginia Woolf’s Fiction , 3–20. Columbus OH: Ohio State University Press.Google Scholar
1995 Virginia Woolf A-Z. The Essential Reference to Her Life and Writings . ­Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
Johnson, Manly
1973 Orlando and The Waves . In Virginia Woolf , 78–91. New York NY: Frederick Ungar.Google Scholar
Jung, Carl Gustav.
[1912] 1916 Psychology of the Unconscious: A Study of the Transformations and Symbolisms of the Libido. A Contribution to the History of thought, trans. by B. M. Hinkle. London: Kegan Paul Trench Trubner.Google Scholar
Katz, Tamar
1995Modernism, subjectivity, and narrative form: Abstraction in The Waves . Narrative 3(3): 232–251.Google Scholar
Kelley, Alice van Buren
1973 The Waves . In The Novels of Virginia Woolf, Facts and Vision , 144–199. Chicago IL: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Kennedy, Graeme
1998 An Introduction to Corpus Linguistics . London: Longman.Google Scholar
Kirkpatrick, Brownlee J. & Clarke, Stuart Nelson
1997. A Bibliography of Virginia Woolf, 4th edn. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
Knapp, John V.
1990Introduction: Self-preservation and self-transformation: Interdisciplinary approaches to literary character. Style 23(3): 349–364.Google Scholar
Kövecses, Zoltán
2002 Metaphor: A Practical Introduction . Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
Kramp, Michael
1998The resistant social/sexual subjectivity of Hall’s Ogilvy and Woolf’s Rhoda. Rocky Mountain Review 1–35, Fall, 63. <http://​rmmla​.org​/ereview​/52​.2​/pdfs​/52​-2​-1998akrampm​.pdf> (21 August 2013).
Krippendorff, Klaus H.
2004 Content Analysis: An Introduction to its Methodology . Thousand Oaks CA: Sage.Google Scholar
Kumar, Shiv K.
1963 Bergson and the Stream of Consciousness Novel , 64–102. New York NY: New York University Press.Google Scholar
Kunda, Ziva & Thagard
Paul 1996Forming impressions from stereotypes, traits, and behaviors: A parallel-constraint-satisfaction theory. Psychological Review 103: 284–308. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Lacan, Jacques
[1998] 2004The mirror stage as formative of the function of the I. In Literary Theory: An Anthology , 2nd edn, Julie Rivkin & Michael Ryan (eds), 441–446. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Lakoff, George
1993The contemporary theory of metaphor. In Metaphor and Thought , 2nd edn, Andrew Ortony (ed.), 202–251. Cambridge: CUP. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Lakoff, George & Johnson, Mark
1980 Metaphors we Live by . Chicago IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Lakoff, George & Turner, Mark
1989 More than Cool Reason: A Field Guide to Poetic Metaphor . Chicago IL: University of Chicago Press. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Leaska, Mitchell A.
1970 Virginia Woolf’s Lighthouse: A Study in Critical Method . London: The Hogarth Press.Google Scholar
Leaska, Mitchell A.
(ed.) 1984The Virginia Woolf Reader. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.Google Scholar
Lee, Hermione
1977 Virginia Woolf . London: Vintage.Google Scholar
Leech, Geoffrey N.
1969 A Linguistic Guide to English Poetry . London: Longman.Google Scholar
1992Corpora and theories of linguistic performance. In Directions in Corpus Linguistics , Jan Svartvik (ed.), 105–122. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2005Adding linguistic annotation. In Developing Linguistic Corpora: A Guide to Good Practice , Martin Wynne (ed.), 17–29. Oxford: Oxbow Books. <http://​ahds​.ac​.uk​/linguistic​-corpora​/> (16 January 2012).
2008Work in progress in corpus stylistics: A method of finding ‘deviant’ or ‘key’ features of texts, and its application to ‘The Mark on the Wall.’ In Language in Literature , 136–161. Harlow: Pearson Longman.Google Scholar
Leech, Geoffrey N.
2011Principles and applications of corpus linguistics. In Perspectives on Corpus Linguistics, Vander Viana, Sonia Zyngier & Geoff ­Barnbrook (eds), 155–170. [Studies in Corpus Linguistics 48]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
Leech, Geoffrey N. & Fligelstone, Steven
1992Computers and corpus analysis. In Computers and Written Texts , C. S. Butler (ed.), 115–140. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Leech, Geoffrey N. & Short, Mick H.
[1981] 2007 Style in Fiction: A Linguistic Introduction to English Fictional Prose , 2nd edn. London: Longman.Google Scholar
Leech, Geoffrey N., Smith, Nicholas & Rayson, Paul
2012English style on the move: Variation and change in stylistic norms in the twentieth century. In English Corpus Linguistics: Crossing Paths , Merja Kytö (ed.), 69–98. Amsterdam: Rodopi.Google Scholar
Lorsch, Susan E.
1979Structure and rhythm in The Waves: The ebb and flow of meaning. Essays in Literature 6: 195–206.Google Scholar
Louw, William E.
1993Irony in the text or insincerity in the writer? The diagnostic potential of semantic prosodies. In Text and Technology: In Honour of John Sinclair , Mona Baker, Gill Francis & Elena Tognini-Bonelli (eds), 152–176. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
Louw, William
1997The role of corpora in critical literary appreciation. In Teaching and Language Corpora , Anne Wichmann, Steven Fligelstone, Tony McEnery & Gerry Knowles (eds), 240–251. London: Longman.Google Scholar
2000Contextual prosodic theory: Bringing semantic prosodies to life. In Words in Context. A Tribute to John Sinclair on his Retirement , Chris Heffer & Helen Sauntson (eds), 1–58. Birmingham: University of Birmingham.Google Scholar
2005Dressing up waiver: A stochastic collocational reading of the ‘Truth and Reconcilitation Commission (TRC).’ Occasional papers, 1–78. Bologna: Centro di Studi Linguistico-Culturali. <http://​www​.lingue​.unibo​.it​/ceslic​/e​_occ​_papers​.htm​. Pdf > (10 July 2013).
Louw, William E.
2007Literary worlds as collocation. In Literature and Stylistics for Language Learners: Theory and Practice , Greg Watson & Sonia Zyngier (eds), 91–105. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
Love, Harold
2002 Attributing Authorship: An Introduction . Cambridge: CUP. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Lucenti, Lisa M.
1998Virginia Woolf’s The Waves: To defer that “appalling moment.” Criticism 40(1): 75–97.Google Scholar
Lüdeling, Anke & Kytö, Merja
(eds) 2008 Corpus Linguistics. An International Handbook , Vol. 1. Berlin: De Gruyter. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(eds) 2009 Corpus Linguistics. An International Handbook , Vol. 2. Berlin: De Gruyter. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Lüdeling, Anke & Zeldes, Amir
2008Three views on corpora: Corpus linguistics, literary computing, and computational linguistics. Jahrbuch für Computerphilologie 9: 149–178.<http://​computerphilologie​.tu​-darmstadt​.de​/jg07​/luedzeldes​.html> (3 March 2012).Google Scholar
Mahlberg, Michaela
2007aA corpus perspective on Dickens’ Great Expectations. In Contemporary Stylistics , Marina Lambrou & Peter Stockwell (eds), 19–31. London: Continuum.Google Scholar
2012 Corpus Stylistics in Dickens’ Fiction . London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Mahlberg, Michaela & McIntyre, Dan
2011A case for corpus stylistics: Analysing Ian ­Fleming’s Casino Royale. English Text Construction 4(2): 204–227. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Malory, Sir Thomas
[1485] 1969 Le Morte D’Arthur, Janet Cowen (ed.). Harmondsworth: Penguin.Google Scholar
Marcus, Jane
1997 Virginia Woolf . Plymouth: Northcote.Google Scholar
Margolin, Uri
1983Characterization in narrative: Some theoretical prolegomena. Neophilologus 67(1): 1–14. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
1986The doer and the deed: Action as a basis for characterization in narrative. Poetics Today 7(2): 205–225. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
1987Introducing and sustaining characters in literary narrative: A set of conditions. Style 21(1): 107–124.Google Scholar
1990The what, the when, and the how of being a character in literary narrative. Style 24(3): 453–468.Google Scholar
McAdams, Dan P., Anydoho, Nana Akua A., Brown, Chelsea, Huang, Yi Ting, Kaplan, Bonnie & Machado, Mary A.
2004Traits stories: Links between dispositional and narrative features of personality. Journal of Personality 72(4): 761–784. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
McArthur, Tom
1981 Longman Lexicon of Contemporary English . London: Longman.Google Scholar
McCluskey, Kathleen
1986 Reverberations: Sound and Structure in the Novels of Virginia Woolf . Ann Arbor MI: UMI Research Press.Google Scholar
McConnell, Frank D.
1971“Death among the apple trees:” The Waves and the world of things. In Virginia Woolf: A Collection of Critical Essays , Claire Sprague (ed.), 117–129. Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
McEnery, Tony & Wilson, Andrew
2001 Corpus Linguistics , 2nd edn. Edinburgh: EUP.Google Scholar
McEnery, Tony & Xiao, Zhonghua
2005Two approaches to genre analysis: Three genres in Modern American English. Journal of English Linguistics 33(1): 62–82. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
McIntyre, Dan
2008Integrating multimodal analysis and the stylistics of drama: A multimodal perspective on Ian McKellen’s Richard III . Language and Literature 17(4): 309–334. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2012The year’s work in stylistics. Language and Literature 21(4): 402–415. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
McNichol, Stella
1990 Virginia Woolf and the Poetry of Fiction , 117–140. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
McVee, Mary B., Dunsmore, Kailannie & Gavelek, James R.
2005Schema theory revisited. Review of Educational Research 75(4): 531–566. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Mead, Gerard
1990The representation of fictional character. Style 24(3): 440–452.Google Scholar
Meisel, Perry
1980 The Absent Father: Virginia Woolf and Walter Pater , 153–244. New Haven CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Minow-Pinkney, Makiko
1985Feminine Writing and the Problem of the Self: An Examination of Virginia Woolf’s Novels in the Light of Recent Critical and Psychoanalytic Theories. PhD dissertation, University of Warwick. Electronic reproduction. Coventry: University of Warwick Library 2011.<http://​webcat​.warwick​.ac​.uk​/record​=b1444542~S15> (10 June 2013).Google Scholar
1987 Virginia Woolf and the Problem of the Subject: Feminine Writing in the Major Novels . Brighton: Harvester.Google Scholar
Minsky, Marvin
1974A framework for representing knowledge. MIT-AI Laboratory Memo N° 306. <http://​web​.media​.mit​.edu​/~minsky​/papers​/frames​/frames​.html> (20 November 2009).
2006 The Emotion Machine . New York NY: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
Miranda García, Antonio & Calle, Martín Javier
2007Function words in authorship attribution studies. Literary and Linguistic Computing 22(1): 49–66. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Moody, Anthony D.
1963 Virginia Woolf . New York NY: Grove Press.Google Scholar
Mosteller, Frederick & Wallace, David L.
1984 Applied Bayesian and Classical Inference: The Case of the Federalist Papers, 2nd edn. Berlin: Springer. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Mulac, Anthony, Bradac, James J. & Gibbons, Pamela
2001Empirical support for the gender as culture hypothesis: An intercultural analysis of male/female language differences. Human Communication Research 27(1): 121–152. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Mulas, Francesco
2002Virginia Woolf’s The Waves: A novel of silence. <http://​www​.uniss​.it​/lingue​/annali​_file​/vol​_2​/04​_Mulas​.pdf> (2 August 2013).
Muller, Herbert J.
1937Virginia Woolf and feminine fiction. The Saturday Review of Literature 15: 3–4. <www​.unz​.org​/Pub​/SaturdayRev​-1937feb06​-00003> (2 November 2013).
Murphy, Bróna
2010 Corpus and Sociolinguistics: Investigating Age and Gender in Female Talk [Studies in Corpus Linguistics 38]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Newman, Matthew L., Pennebaker, James W., Berry, Diane & Richards, Jane M.
2003Lying words: Predicting deception from linguistic styles. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 29: 665–675. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Newman, Matthew L., Groom, Carla J., Handelman, Lori D. & Pennebaker, James W.
2008Gender differences in language use: An analysis of 14,000 text samples. Discourse Processes 45(5): 211–246. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Nicolson, Harold.
Book review of The Waves . Action 8 October 1931, 8.
Nishina, Yasunori
2007A corpus-driven approach to genre analysis: The reinvestigation of academic, newspaper and literary texts. ELR Journal 1(2). <http://​ejournals​.org​.uk​/ELR​/article​/2007​/2> (29 July 2013).
Oakes, Michael P. & Ji, Meng
(eds) 2012 Quantitative Methods in Corpus-Based Translation Studies [Studies in Corpus Linguistics 51]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Opas, Lisa L. & Rommel, Thomas
1995Introduction special section: New approaches to computer applications in literary studies. Literary and Linguistic Computing 10(4): 261–262. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Orr, Douglas W.
1989Virginia Woolf and Psychoanalysis. The International Review of Psychoanalysis 16: 151–161.Google Scholar
Patmore, Coventry K. D.
1856 The Angel in the House and The Espousals . Boston MA: Ticknor and Fields.Google Scholar
Patton, Jon M. & Can, Fazly
2004A stylometric analysis of Yasar Kemal’s Ince memed tetralogy. Computers and the Humanities 38(4): 457–467. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Payne, Michael
1969The eclipse of order: The ironic structure of The Waves . Modern Fiction Studies XV(1): 209–218.Google Scholar
Peel, Roger
1933Virginia Woolf. Criterion XIII: 78–96.Google Scholar
van Peer, Willie
(ed) 1989a The Taming of the Text: Explorations in Language, Literature and Culture , 1–15. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
1989bQuantitative studies of literature. A critique and an outlook. Computers and the Humanities 23(4–5): 301–307. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(ed) 2011Introduction. Scientific Study of Literature 1(1): 1–5. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Pennebaker, James W.
2002What our words can say about us: Towards a broader language psychology. Psychological Science Agenda 15: 8–9.Google Scholar
2011 The Secret Life of Pronouns: What Our Words Say About Us . New York NY: Bloomsbury Press.Google Scholar
Pennebaker, James W. & King, Laura A.
1999Linguistic styles: Language use as an individual difference. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 77(6): 1296–1312. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Pennebaker, James W. & Lay, Thomas C.
2002Language use and personality during crises: Analyses of Mayor Rudolph Giuliani’s press conferences. Journal of Research in Personality 36: 271–282. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Pennebaker, James W., Mehl, Matthias R. & Niederhoffer, Kate G.
2003Psychological aspects of natural language use: Our words, our selves. Annual Review of Psychology 54: 547–577. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Pennebaker, James W. & Ireland, Molly E.
2011Using literature to understand authors: The case for computerized text analysis. Scientific Study of Literature 1(1): 34–48. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Pennington, Donald C.
2000 Social Cognition . London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Pervin, Lawrence A.
1989 Goal Concepts in Personality and Social Psychology . Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Phelan, James
1989 Reading People, Reading Plots . Chicago IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
1990Character and judgement in narrative and in lyric: Toward an understanding of the audience’s engagement in “ The Waves .” Style 24(3): 408–421.Google Scholar
Piao, Scott S. L., Rayson, Paul, Archer, Dawn & McEnery, Tony
2004Evaluating lexical resources for a semantic tagger. The 4th International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), Vol. 2, 499–502. Lisbon, Portugal.Google Scholar
Piazza, Roberta, Bednarek, Monika & Rossi, Fabio
(eds) 2011 Telecinematic Discourse: Approaches to the Language of Films and Television Series [Pragmatics & Beyond New Seies 211]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Poresky, Louise
1992Eternal renewal: Life and death in Virginia Woolf’s The Waves . In Virginia Woolf Miscellanies, The First Annual Conference on Virginia Woolf , Mark Hussey & Vara Neverow-Turk (eds), 64–70. New York NY: Pace University Press.Google Scholar
Poznanski, Mike & Thagard, Paul
2005Changing personalities: Towards realistic virtual characters. Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence 17(3): 221–241. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Propp, Vladimir
1968 The Morphology of the Folktale , trans. by Laurence Scott, 2nd edn. Austin TX: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
Quirk, Randolph, Greenbaum, Sidney, Leech, Geoffrey N. & Svartvik, Jan
1985 A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language . London: Longman.Google Scholar
Ramsay, Stephen
2007Algorithmic criticism. In Roger Siemens & Susan Schreibman (eds), A Companion to Digital Literary Studies , 477–491. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
2011 Reading Machines: Toward an Algorithmic Criticism . Chicago IL: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
Ramsay, Stephen & Steger, Sara
2006Distinguished speakers: Keyword extraction and critical analysis with Virginia Woolf’s The Waves , 255–257. Digital Humanities . Paris, Sorbonne, 5–9 July.Google Scholar
Rantavaara, Irma
1953 Virginia Woolf and Bloomsbury . Helsinki: Annales Academiae Scientiarum Fennicae.Google Scholar
1960 Virginia Woolf’s The Waves . Helsinki: Helsingfors.Google Scholar
Rayson, Paul
2003Matrix: A Statistical Method and Software Tool for Linguistic Analysis through Corpus Comparison. PhD dissertation, Lancaster University.Google Scholar
2012. Wmatrix: A Web-based Corpus Processing Environment . Computing Department, Lancaster University, v.3. http://​ucrel​.lancs​.ac​.uk​/wmatrix/>
Rayson, Paul & Garside, Roger
1998The CLAWS Web Tagger. ICAME Journal 22: 121–123.Google Scholar
2000Comparing corpora using frequency profiling. The ­Association for Computational Linguistics, 1–6. Hong Kong: ACL.Google Scholar
Reicher, Maria E.
2010The ontology of character. In Characters in Fictional Worlds: Understanding Imaginary Beings in Literature, Film, and Other Media, Jens Eder, Fotis Jannidis & Ralf Schneider (eds), 111–133.Berlin: De GruyterGoogle Scholar
Revelle, William
2007Experimental approaches to the study of personality. In Handbook of Research Methods in Personality and Psychology , Richard W. Robins, Chris R. Fraley & Robert F. Krueger (eds), 37–61. New York NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
Richards, Ivor A.
1936 The Philosophy of Rhetoric . Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
Richardson, Robert O.
1973Point of view in Virginia Woolf’s The Waves. Texas Studies in Literature and Language 14(4): 691–709.Google Scholar
Rimmon-Kenan, Shlomith
1983 Narrative Fiction: Contemporary Poetics . London: Methuen. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Robson, Mark & Stockwell, Peter
2005 Language in Theory: A Resource Book for Students . New York NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Rodal, Jocelyn
2006“One world, one life:” The politics of personal connection in Virginia Woolf’s The Waves, 1–70 . MIT Archives . Cambridge MA: MIT.Google Scholar
Rommel, Thomas
2004Of what is past, or passing, or to come. Electronic analysis of literary texts. In Jahrbuch für Computerphilologie , 5, George Braungart, Karl Eibl & Fotis ­Jannidis (eds), 201–216. Paderborn: mentis. http://​computerphilologie​.tu​-darmstadt​.de​/jg03​/jb5​_Endfassung> (20 March 2012).
Rosenthal, Michael
1979 The Waves . In Virginia Woolf , Michael Rosenthal (ed.), 142–167. London: Routledge & Kegan.Google Scholar
Rumelhart, David E. & Ortony, Andrew
1977The representation of knowledge in memory. In Schooling and the Acquisition of Knowledge , Richard C. Anderson, R. J. Spiro & W. E. Montague (eds), 99–135. Hillsdale NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
Schank, Roger C. & Abelson, Robert P.
1977 Scripts, Plans, Goals, and Understanding: An Inquiry into Human Knowledge Structures . Hillsdale NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
Schnurr, Paula P., Rosenberg, Stanley D., Oxman, Thomas E. & Tucker, Gary J.
1986A methodological note on content analysis: Estimates of reliability. Journal of Personality Assessment 50(4): 601–609. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Scholes, Robert, Phelan, James & Kellogg, Robert
2006 The Nature of Narrative , 2nd edn. ­Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
Scott, Mike
1997PC analysis of key words – and key key words. System 25(2): 233–245. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2000Focusing on the text and its key words. In Rethinking Language Pedagogy from a Corpus Perspective , Vol. 2, Lou Burnard & Tony McEnery (eds), 103–122. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
2010 WordSmith Tools , v.5. Liverpool: Lexical Analysis Software.Google Scholar
Scott, Michael & Tribble, Christopher
2006 Textual Patterns: Key Word and Corpus Analysis in Language Education [Studies in Corpus Linguistics 22]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Semin, Gün R.
2008Stereotypes in the Wild. In Stereotype Dynamics: Language-Based Approaches to the Formation, Maintenance and Transformation of Stereotypes , Yoshihisa Kashima, Klaus Fiedler & Peter Freytag (eds), 11–28. New York NY: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
Semino, Elena
1997 Language and World Creation in Poems and Other Texts . London: Longman.Google Scholar
2006Blending and characters’ mental functioning in Virginia Woolf’s Lappin and Lapinova. Language and Literature 15(1): 55–72. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2007Mind style 25 years on. Style 41(2): 153–203.Google Scholar
2008 Metaphor in Discourse . Cambridge: CUP.Google Scholar
Semino, Elena & Swindlehurst, Kate
1996Metaphor and mind style in Ken Kesey’s One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest. Style 30(1): 143–166.Google Scholar
Semino, Elena & Culpeper, Jonathan
(eds) 2002 Cognitive Stylistics: Language and Cognition in Text Analysis [Linguistic Approaches to Literature 1]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Semino, Elena & Short, Mick
2004 Corpus Stylistics: Speech, Writing and Thought Presentation in a Corpus of English Writing . London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Short, Mick
1996 Exploring the Language of Poems, Plays and Prose . London: Longman.Google Scholar
Simon, Irene
1960Some aspects of Virginia Woolf’s imagery. A Journal of English Letters and Philology 41(1–6): 180–196.Google Scholar
Sinclair, John McH.
1987 Looking up . London: Collins Cobuild.Google Scholar
1991 Corpus, Concordances, Collocation . Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
1996The search for units of meaning. Textus IX: 75–106.Google Scholar
Sinclair, John McH., Jones, Susan, Daley, Robert & Krishnamurthy, Ramesh
2004 English Collocation Studies: The OSTI Report (Corpus and Discourse) . New York NY: Continuum.Google Scholar
Skinner, Burrhus F.
1957 Verbal Behaviour . Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Slatcher, Richard B., Chung, Cindy K., Pennebaker, James W. & Stone, Lori D.
2007Winning words: Individual differences in linguistic style among U. S. presidential and vice presidential candidates. Journal of Research in Personality 41: 63–75. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Smith, Joseph A. & Kelly, Colleen
2002Stylistic constancy and change across literary corpora: Using measures of lexical richness to data works. Computers and the Humanities 36(4): 411–431. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Stamou, Constantina & Forsyth, Richard S.
2000Dating Dickinson: An experimental approach to stylochronometry. ALLC/ACH 2000 Joint International Conference of the Association for Literary & Linguistic Computing and the Association for Computers and the Humanities. Glasgow, July 2000.
Starcke, Bettina
2006The phraseology of Jane Austen’s Persuasion: Phraseological units as carriers of meaning. ICAME Journal 30: 87–104.Google Scholar
2008I don’t know – differences in patterns of collocation and semantic prosody in phrases of different length. In Language, People, Numbers: Corpus Linguistics and Society , Andrea Gerbig & Oliver Mason (eds), 199–216. Amsterdam: Rodopi.Google Scholar
2010 Corpus Linguistics in Literary Analysis. Jane Austen and her Contemporaries . New York NY: Continuum.Google Scholar
Steen, Gerard
1994 Understanding Metaphor in Literature . London: Longman.Google Scholar
Stewart, Jack F.
1982Spatial form and color in The Waves . Twentieth Century Literature 28(1): 86–106. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Stewart, Larry L.
2003Charles Brockden Brown: Quantitative analysis and literary interpretation. Literary and Linguistic Computing 18(2): 129–138. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Stockwell, Peter
2002 Cognitive Poetics: An Introduction . London: Routledge.Google Scholar
2008The year’s work in stylistics 2007. Language and Literature 17(4): 351–363. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Stone, Philip J., Dunphy, C. Dexter & Smith, Marshall S.
1966 The General Inquirer: A Computer Approach to Content Analysis . Cambridge MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
Stubbs, Michael
1993British traditions in text analysis: From Firth to Sinclair. In Text and Technology: In Honour of John Sinclair, Mona Baker, Gill Francis & Elena Tognini-Bonelli (eds), 1–36. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
1995Collocations and semantic profiles: On the cause of the trouble with quantitative studies. Functions of Language 2(1): 23–55. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2002 Words and Phrases: Corpus Studies of Lexical Semantics . Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
2005Conrad in the computer: Examples of quantitative stylistic methods. Language and Literature 14(1): 5–24. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Tabata, Tomoji
2002Investigating stylistic variation in Dickens through correspondence analysis of word-class distribution. In English Corpus Linguistics in Japan , Toshio Saito, Junsaku Nakamura & Shunji Yamazaki (eds), 165–182. Amsterdam: Rodopi.Google Scholar
Tennyson, Alfred.
1st Baron. 1953Idylls of the King [1856–188]. In Poetical Works Including the Plays . London: OUP.Google Scholar
Thagard, Paul
2005 Mind: Introduction to Cognitive Science, 2nd edn. Cambridge MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
Tognini-Bonelli, Elena
2001 Corpus Linguistics at Work [Studies in Corpus Linguistics 6]. ­Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Toolan, Michael J.
1988 Narrative: A Critical Linguistic Introduction . London: Routledge.Google Scholar
2004Values are descriptions; or, from literature to linguistics and back again by way of keywords. Belgian Journal of English Language and Literature 2: 11–30.Google Scholar
2008Narrative progression in short story: First steps in a corpus stylistic approach. Narrative 16(2): 105–120. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Treloar, Andrew
1988A Computer-assisted Analysis of Characterisation in Virginia Woolf’s “The Waves.” MA thesis, Melbourne University. http://​andrew​.treloar​.net​/research​/theses​/masters/> (20 April 2011).
de Troyes, Chrétien
1993 Le Roman de Perceval ou Le Conte du Graal. Keith Busby (ed.). Tübingen: Niemeyer. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Ungerer, Friedrich & Schmid, Hans-Jörg
1996 An Introduction to Cognitive Linguistics . Harlow: Longman.Google Scholar
Unsigned review of The Waves
. San Francisco Chronicle 6 December 1931 In Contemporary Reviews for The Waves . http://​www​.uah​.edu​/woolf​/waves​.html> (11 November 2013).
Utell, Janine
2008Meals and mourning in Woolf’s The Waves . College Literature 35(2): 1–19. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Vandivere, Julie
1996Waves and fragments: Linguistic construction as subject formation in ­Virginia Woolf. Twentieth Century Literature: A Scholarly and Critical Journal 42(2): 221–233. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Viana, Vander, Fausto, Fabiana & Zyngier, Sonia
2007Corpus linguistics and literature: A contrastive analysis of Dan Brown and Machado de Assis. In Textos e leituras: Estudos empíricos de língua e literatura , Sonia Zyngier, Vander Viana & Juliana Jandre (eds), 233–256. Rio de Janeiro: Publit.Google Scholar
Viana, Vander, Zyngier, Sonia & Barnbrook, Geoff
(eds) 2011 Perspectives on Corpus Linguistics [Studies in Corpus Linguistics 48]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Wagner, Richard
1882 Parsifal A Stage-Consecrating Festival-Play . New York NY: G. Schirmer.Google Scholar
Walker, Brian
2010Wmatrix, key concepts and the narrators in Julian Barnes’s Talking it Over. In Language and Style , Dan McIntyre & Beatrix Busse (eds), 364–387. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
Walker, Nancy
1988“Wider than the Sky.” Public presence and private self in Dickinson, James, and Woolf. In The Private Self: Theory and Practice of Women’s Autobiographical Writings , Shari Benstock (ed.), 272–303. Chapel Hill NC: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
Ward Jouve, Nicole
2000Virginia Woolf and pyschoanalysis. In The Cambridge Companion to Virginia Woolf , Sue Roe & Susan Sellers (eds), 245–273. Cambridge: CUP. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Warner, Eric
1987 Virginia Woolf: The Waves . Cambridge: CUP.Google Scholar
Warwick, Alexandra
2008Key critical concepts and topics. In The Victorian Literature Handbook , Alexandra Warwick & Martin Willis (eds), 147–162. New York NY: Continuum.Google Scholar
Watson, Greg & Zyngier, Sonia
(eds) 2007 Literature and Stylistics for Language Learners: Theory and Practice . Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
Weare, Jane
1994 The Voyage Out . In Virginia Woolf: Introduction to the Major Works , Julia Briggs (ed.), 1–31. London: Virago Press.Google Scholar
Weber, Robert P.
Basic Content Analysis, 2nd edn. Newbury Park CA: Sage.
Weeks, Jeffrey
1989 Sex, Politics & Society: The Regulation of Sexuality since 1800 , 2nd edn. London: Pearson.Google Scholar
Weinsheimer, Joel
1979Theory of character: Emma. Poetics Today 1: 185–211. DOI: CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Weintraub, Walter
1981 Verbal Behaviour: Psychopathology and Adaptation . New York NY: Springer.Google Scholar
1989 Verbal Behavior in Everyday Life . New York NY: Springer.Google Scholar
Widdowson, Henry G.
2008The novel features of the text. Corpus analysis and stylistics. In Language, People, Numbers: Corpus Linguistics and Society , Andrea Gerbig & Oliver Mason (eds), 293–304. Amsterdam: Rodopi.Google Scholar
Wilson, Andrew & Leech, Geoffrey N.
1993Automatic content analysis and the stylistic analysis of prose literature. Revue Informatique et Statistique dans les Sciences Humaines 29: 219–234.Google Scholar
Woolf, Virginia
1915 The Voyage Out . London: Duckworth.Google Scholar
1919 Night and Day . London: Duckworth.Google Scholar
[1920] 1965Freudian fiction. Review of An Imperfect Mother by J. D. Beresford. In Contemporary Writers: Essays on Twentieth Century Books and Authors , Jean Guiguet (ed.), 152–154. New York NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.Google Scholar
1922 Jacob’s Room . London: The Hogarth Press.Google Scholar
Woolf, Virginia.
[1924] 1984 Mr. Bennett and Mrs. Brown. In The Virginia Woolf Reader , Mitchell A. Leaska (ed.), 192–212. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.Google Scholar
Woolf, Virginia
1925 Mrs. Dalloway . London: The Hogarth Press.Google Scholar
1925 The Diary of Virginia Woolf , Anne O. Bell (ed.), 1977–1984, Vol. I–Vol. V. New York NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.Google Scholar
[1925] 2008Modern fiction. In Virginia Woolf: Selected Essays , David Bradshaw (ed.), 6–12. Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
1927 To the Lighthouse, Margaret Drabble (ed.). Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
1928 Orlando . London: The Hogarth Press.Google Scholar
1929 A Room of One’s Own . London: The Hogarth Press.Google Scholar
Woolf, Virginia.
[1931] 1994 Le Onde ( The Waves , trans. by Nadia Fusini), 8th edn. Milano: Rizzoli.Google Scholar
Woolf, Virginia
[1931] 1995 The Waves . London: The Hogarth Press, Electronic Version, ­Oxford: Oxford Text Archive. U-1658-A. Depositor: Smith, John B. SGML-tagged version of Text 148 < http://wwwotaoxacuk/desc/1658> (5 January 2005).Google Scholar
[1931] 1998 The Waves , Gillian Beer (ed.). Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
[1931] 2006 The Waves . Annotated and with an introduction by Molly Hite. New York NY: Harvest.Google Scholar
[1958] 1975The Narrow Bridge of Art. In Granite and Rainbow , 2nd edn, 11–23. New York NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.Google Scholar
Young, Dennis
1986The mythological element in Virginia Woolf’s The Waves: Bernard’s vision. Journal of Literary Studies 7: 94–104.Google Scholar
Zyngier, Sonia
2008 Macbeth through the computer: Literary evaluation and pedagogical implications. In The Quality of Literature. Linguistic Studies in Literary Evaluation [Linguistic Approaches to Literature 4], Willie van Peer (ed.), 169–190. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Zyngier, Sonia, Bortolussi, Marisa, Chesnokova, Anna & Auracher, Jan
(eds) 2008 Directions in Empirical Literary Studies . In Honor of Willie van Peer [Linguistic Approaches to Literature], Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Subjects & Metadata
BIC Subject: DSBH – Literary studies: from c 1900 -
BISAC Subject: LIT004120 – LITERARY CRITICISM / European / English, Irish, Scottish, Welsh
ONIX Metadata
ONIX 2.1
ONIX 3.0
U.S. Library of Congress Control Number:  2014001873 | Marc record