Chapter published in:Cross-theoretical Explorations of Interlocutors and their Individual Differences
Edited by Laura Gurzynski-Weiss
[Language Learning & Language Teaching 53] 2020
► pp. 51–76
Chapter 3The effect of proficiency, gender, and
learning style on the occurrence of negotiated
interaction in communicative task
Apart from positive evidence, or information about what is possible in the target language (TL), second language learners also need negative evidence, or information about what is not possible in the TL, and opportunities to engage in output production (Gass, 2003). As postulated by the cognitive-interactionist approach, these conditions can be met through opportunities for negotiated interaction. Building on previous research (e.g., Gass & Varonis, 1986; Iwashita, 2001; Porter, 1996; Rassaei, 2015), this study investigated the impact of English learners’ proficiency, gender, and learning style on the occurrence, nature, and outcomes of negotiation in two tasks, which differed with respect to the presence of information gap. Results provide some evidence for the mediating role of gender and learning style but not proficiency, with task type being an important mediating variable.
- Literature review: ID factors and negotiated interaction
- The present study
- Aims and research questions
- Frequency, nature, and outcome of negotiated interaction
- The relationship between proficiency, gender, and learning style, and negotiated interaction
- Interaction between proficiency, gender, learning style, and task type
Published online: 21 January 2020
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