There has been little research investigating the effects of form-focused instruction (FFI) on the second language
acquisition of children. This article reports a quasi-experimental study of integrated form-focused instruction for 33 children
aged 9–12 years. They completed four dictogloss tasks designed to elicit the use of the Present Perfect Tense and received
instruction consisting of either explicit metalinguistic explanation (group 1), direct written correction (group 2) or no
form-focused instruction (the comparison group) between performing the tasks. Accuracy in the production of the target structure
across the four tasks was variable and showed no improvement from the first to the last. Nor were there any statistically
significant differences in accuracy among the three groups. The results support some earlier studies of young children (e.g. Fazio, 2001) that have failed to show that FFI benefits young children. This may be
because children fail to make use of their metalinguistic knowledge of grammatical features when undertaking meaning-focused
(2006) One size fits all?: Recasts, prompts, and L2 learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 28(04), 543–574.
Andrews, A.et al.
(2004) The effect of grammar teaching (sentence combining) in English on 5 to 16 year olds’ accuracy and quality in written composition. Department of Educational Studies Research Paper, University of York.
(2000) Tense and aspect in second language acquisition: Form, meaning and use. Oxford: Blackwell.
Biber, D., Nekrasova, T., & Horn, B.
(2011) The effectiveness of feedback for L1-English and L2-writing development: A meta-analysis. ETS Research Report Series, 11, 1–99.
Bitchener, J., & Ferris, D.
(2012) Written corrective feedback in second language acquisition and writing. New York, NY: Routledge.
Bitchener, J., & Storch, N.
(2016) Written corrective feedback for L2 development. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
Bouffard, L., & Sakar, M.
(2008) Training 8-year-Ood French immersion students in metalinguistic analysis: An innovation in form-focused pedagogy. Language Awareness, 171, 3–24.
Bryant, P., Devine, M., Ledward, A. & Nunes, T.
(1997) Spelling with apostrophes and understanding possession. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 671, 91–110.
(2001) Teaching languages to young learners. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
(2001) Chinese speakers. In M. Swan & B. Smith (Eds.), Learner English: A teacher’s guide to interference and other problems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
(2001) Cognitive underpinnings of focus on form. In P. Robinson (Ed.), Cognition and second language instruction (pp. 206–257). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Doughty, C., & Varela, E.
(1998) Communicative focus on form. In C. Doughty & J. Williams (Eds.), Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition (pp. 114–138). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
(2001) The effect of corrections and commentaries on the journal writing accuracy of minority- and majority-language students. Journal of Second Language Writing, 10(4), 235–249.
Frear, D. & Chiu, Y.-H.
(2015) The effect of focused and unfocused indirect written corrective feedback on EFL learners’ accuracy in new pieces of writing. System, 531, 24–34.
(2015) The effectiveness of explicit grammar instruction for the young foreign language learner: A classroom-based experimental study (Unpublished PhD dissertation). University of York, UK.
(1998) The role of focus-on-form tasks in promoting child L2 acquisition. In C. Doughty & J. Williams (Eds.), Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition (pp. 156–173). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Inhelder, B., Piaget, J.
(1958) The growth of logical thinking from childhood to adolescence (Parsons, A., Milgram, S. Trans.), New York, NY: Basic Books.
(2013) The age factor on the primary, secondary and cumulative transfer-of-training effects of processing instruction on the acquisition of French as a second language. In J. Lee & A. Benati (Eds.), Individual differences and processing instruction (pp. 105–130). London: Equinox.
Liu, Q., & Brown, D.
(2015) Methodological synthesis of research on the effectiveness of corrective feedback in L2 writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 301, 66–81.
(2004) Differential effects of prompts and recasts in form-focused instruction. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26(3), 399–432.
Lyster, R., & Ranta, L.
(1997) Corrective feedback and learner uptake. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 19(1), 37–66.
(1971) Tense and time reference in English. In Fillmore, C. & Langendoen, D. T. (Eds), Studies in linguistic semantics (pp. 97–113). New York: Holt Rinehart.
(1972) Cognitive basis of language learning in infants. Psychological Review, 79(1), 1–13.
(1994) The ambiguity of the English present perfect. Journal of Linguistics, 30(1), 111–157.
Mollestam, E., & Hu, L.
(2016, March18). Corrective feedback on L2 students’ writing. Degree project; Malmo Hogskola. Retrieved from [URL]
(2006) The effects of age on foreign language learning. In C. Muñoz (Ed.), Age and the rate of foreign language learning (pp. 1–40). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Myhill, D., Jones, S., Watson, A. & Lines, H.
(2013) Playful explicitness with grammar: A pedagogy for writing. Literacy, 471, 103–111.
Myhill, D., Jones, S. & Wilson, A.
(2016) Writing conversations: fostering metalinguistic discussion about writing. Research Papers in Education, 311, 23–44.
Norris, J. M., & Ortega, L.
(2000) Effectiveness of L2 instruction: A research synthesis and quantitative meta-analysis. Language Learning, 501, 417–528.
(1984) Methods of morpheme quantification: Their effect of the interpretation of second language data. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 61, 69–78.
(2006) Teaching young language learners. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
(1991) A process approach to literacy using dialogue journals and literature logs with second language learners. Research in the Teaching of English, 25(3), 291–313.
(2014) Student and teacher beliefs about written CF and the effect those beliefs have on uptake: A multiple case study of Laos and Kuwait. (Unpublished PhD dissertation). Auckland University of Technology, Auckland.
Shak, J., & Gardner, S.
(2008) Young learner perspectives on four focus-on-form tasks. Language Teaching Research, 121, 387–408.
Shintani, N., & Aubrey, S.
(2016) The effectiveness of synchronous and asynchronous written corrective feedback on grammatical accuracy in a computer-mediated environment. The Modern Language Journal, 100(1), 296–319.
Shintani, N., & Ellis, R.
(2013) The comparative effect of direct written corrective feedback and metalinguistic explanation on learners’ explicit and implicit knowledge of the English indefinite article. Journal of Second Language Writing, 22(3), 286–306.
Shintani, N., Ellis, R., & Suzuki, W.
(2013) Effects of written feedback and revision on learners’ accuracy in using two English grammatical structures. Language Learning, 64(1), 103–131.
Spada, N., & Lightbown, P.
(2008) Form-focused instruction: isolated or integrated?TESOL Quarterly, 42(2), 181–207.
Swain, M., & Lapkin, S.
(2001) Focus on form through collaborative dialogue: Exploring task effects. In M. Bygate, P. Skehan, & M. Swain (Eds.), Researching pedagogic tasks: Second language learning, teaching, and testing (pp. 99–118). London: Routledge.
Talif, R., & Edwin, M.
(1989) Error analysis of form four English compositions. Retrieved September 20, 2017, from [URL]
(1996) The case against grammar correction in L2 writing classes. Language Learning, 46(2), 327–369.
Van Beuningen, C.
(2010) Corrective feedback in L2 writing: theoretical perspectives, empirical insights, and future directions. International Journal of English Studies, 8(2), 1–27.
Van Beuningen, C., de Jong, N., & Kuiken, F.
(2012) Evidence on the effectiveness of comprehensive error correction in second language writing. Language Learning, 62(1), 1–41.
(1996) Input processing and grammar instruction in second language acquisition. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
VanPatten, B. & Oikkenon, S.
(1996) Explanation vs. structured input in processing instruction. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 181, 495–510.
(1990) Resource books for teachers: grammar dictation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
White, J., & Ranta, L.
(2002) Examining the interface between metalinguistic knowledge and oral production in a second language. Language Awareness, 111, 259–290.
White, L., Spada, N., Lightbown, P. M. & Ranta, L.
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 1 december 2023. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers.
Any errors therein should be reported to them.