Y luego se pintan patrás…
Metaphorical extension and the grammaticalization of patrás in Nuevomexicano Spanish
The expanded use of patrás
is among the most salient features of US Spanish and commonly attributed to English influence. For Lipski (1986)
, it constitutes a syntactic calque from English constructions with back
; Otheguy (1999)
maintains it shows cultural but not linguistic influence; Villa (2005
) ascribes patrás
to grammaticalization processes internal to Spanish. Previous studies lack a detailed account of the semantics of the spatial adverbial in its historical and contemporary usage. Applying Talmy’s (1983)
typology of motion events to corpus data, this paper traces a grammaticalization path for patrás
from its historical use to its contemporary use in Nuevomexicano Spanish. Patrás
has shifted from primarily atelic backwards motion
meanings to primarily telic return
meanings. This shift is evident across Germanic languages for adverbs deriving from the noun back
and in the Romance prefix re-
from Latin adverb retro
. This study proposes contact with English led to an increased frequency of satellite-framed constructions in Nuevomexicano Spanish, creating the frequency conditions for innovations in the form and meaning of para atrás
to conventionalize and lead to systematic linguistic change.
- 2.Present study
- 3.The semantics of space and metaphor
Para atrás and para tras in historical varieties of Spanish 1494–1900
- 4.1Backwards movement
- 4.2Location in an area behind the Ground
- 4.3Orientation towards a site behind the Ground
- 4.4Reverse movement along a path already followed
Patrás in contemporary Nuevomexicano Spanish
- 5.1Return through physical space
- 5.2Return through metaphorical space
- 5.3Reciprocal exchange of acts of communication
- 5.4Continued use with older meanings
- 6.The changes to patrás: Metaphorical extension and grammaticalization
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Cited by 3 other publications
. A usage-based account of paragogic /e/ in 20th century New Mexican Spanish
. Studies in Hispanic and Lusophone Linguistics
pp. 473 ff.
Ramírez Urbaneja, Desirée
. “¿Tú tienes unalittle pumpkin?” Mixed noun phrases in Spanish-English bilingual children and adults
. International Journal of Bilingualism
pp. 824 ff.
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 10 november 2023. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers.
Any errors therein should be reported to them.