Tone Orthography and Literacy

The voice of evidence in ten Niger-Congo languages

Editors
| Independent scholar
| Dallas International University
HardboundAvailable
ISBN 9789027208439 | EUR 105.00 | USD 158.00
 
e-Book
ISBN 9789027260147 | EUR 105.00 | USD 158.00
 
This book presents the results of a series of literacy experiments in ten Niger-Congo languages, representing four language families and spanning five countries. It asks the research question, "To what extent does full tone marking contribute to oral reading fluency, comprehension and writing accuracy, and does that contribution vary from language to language?". One of the main findings is that the ethno-literacy profile of the language community and the social profile of the individual are stronger predictors of reading and writing performance than are the linguistic and orthographic profiles of the language. Our data also suggest that full tone marking may be more beneficial for less educated readers and those with less experience of L1 literacy. The book will bring practical help to linguists and literacy specialists in Africa and beyond who are helping to develop orthographies for tone languages. It will also be of interest to cognitive psychologists exploring the reading process, and researchers investigating writing systems.
[Studies in Written Language and Literacy, 18]  2021.  xxii, 375 pp.
Publishing status: Available
Table of Contents
Foreword
xiii–xv
Acknowledgements
xvii–xviii
About the authors
xix–xx
Abbreviations
xxi–xxii
Introduction
Chapter 1. Introduction
David Roberts, Johannes Merz and JeDene Reeder
3–23
Part 1. Tone orthography in ten Niger-Congo languages
Chapter 2. Tem
David Roberts, JeDene Reeder and Andy Weathers
27–42
Chapter 3. Nateni
David Roberts and JeDene Reeder
43–59
Chapter 4. Mbelime
David Roberts, Johannes Merz and JeDene Reeder
61–83
Chapter 5. Eastern Dan
David Roberts, JeDene Reeder and Valentin Vydrin
85–106
Chapter 6. Yoruba
Matthew Harley and JeDene Reeder
107–126
Chapter 7. Idaasha
David Roberts and JeDene Reeder
127–142
Chapter 8. Ife
David Roberts and JeDene Reeder
143–157
Chapter 9. Elip, Mmala and Yangben
David Roberts, Ginger Boyd and JeDene Reeder
157–188
Part 2. Tone orthography and literacy outcomes
Chapter 10. The tone orthography experiment design
David Roberts and Stephen L. Walter
189–208
Chapter 11. Tone orthography and oral reading speed
David Roberts and Stephen L. Walter
207–221
Chapter 12. Tone orthography and general oral reading accuracy
David Roberts and Stephen L. Walter
221–235
Chapter 13. Tone orthography and tonal oral reading accuracy
David Roberts and Stephen L. Walter
235–249
Chapter 14. Tone orthography and oral reading comprehension
David Roberts and Stephen L. Walter
249–265
Chapter 15. Tone orthography and tone writing accuracy
David Roberts and Stephen L. Walter
265–279
Epilogue
Chapter 16. Epilogue
David Roberts, JeDene Reeder and Stephen L. Walter
279–306
Appendix: Independent variables
305–322
References
321–356
Language Index
355–364
Topical Index
365–375
References

References

Abadzi, Helen
(2012) Reading fluency measurements in EFA FTI partner countries: Outcomes and improvement prospects. GPE Working Paper Series on Learning (Vol. 1). Washington, DC: The World Bank. Google Scholar
Abbott, Mary; Wills, Howard; Miller, Angela; & Kaufman, Journ
(2012) The relationship of error rate and comprehension in second and third grade oral reading fluency. Reading Psychology, 33(1–2), 104–132. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Abraham, Roy Clive
(1958) Dictionary of modern Yoruba. London: University of London Press.Google Scholar
Abu-Leil, Aula Khateeb; Share, David; & Ibrahim, Raphiq
(2014) How does speed and accuracy in reading relate to reading comprehension in Arabic? Psicológica, 35, 251–276.Google Scholar
Abu-Rabia, S.
(1997) Reading in Arabic orthography: The effect of vowels and context on reading accuracy of poor and skilled native Arabic readers in reading paragraphs, sentences and isolated words. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 26, 465–482. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
ACATBLI
(2008)  Ká kã ìwé [Ifè primer, books 1–5]. Atakpamé: Association chrétienne pour l’alphabétisation et la traduction de la Bible en ifè & SIL-Togo.Google Scholar
Adams, Marilyn Jager
(1990) Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Adlof, Suzanne M.; Perfetti, Charles A.; & Catts, Hugh W.
(2011) Developmental changes in reading comprehension: Implications for assessment and instruction. In S. J. Samuels & A. E. Farstrup (Eds.), What research has to say about reading instruction, 4th edition (pp. 186–214). Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Google Scholar
Adéwolé, Lawrence Olufemi
(1987) The Yoruba language: Published works and doctoral dissertations 1843–1986. African linguistic bibliographies (Vol. 3). Hamburg: Helmut Buske. Google Scholar
Afeli, Kossi Antoine
(2003) Politique et aménagement linguistiques au Togo : bilan et perspectives [Language politics and planning in Togo: Review and prospects]. (Thèse d’état). Lomé: Université de Lomé. Google Scholar
Agbemadon, Akouété; & Sambogou, Mateyedou
(1989) Obé òŋu Atsú lɔ káà ma Lomɛ : post-syllabaire en ifè [Obe and Atsu go to discover Lome: Ife post-primer]. Atakpamé: SIL Projet ifè.Google Scholar
Ahn, Sonia J.; & Ledge, Gordon E.
(1995) Psychophysics of reading – XIII. Predictors of magnifier-aided reading speed in low vision. Vision Research, 35(13), 1931–1938. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
AIROÉ
(2000) Le petit livre de l’orthographe actuelle d’après le rapport du conseil supérieur de la langue française [A brief guide to the current orthography following the report of the higher French language council]. Paris: Association pour l’information et la recherche sur les orthographes et les systèmes d’écriture.Google Scholar
Ajayi, J. F. Ade
(1960) How Yoruba was reduced to writing. Odu: A Journal of Yoruba, Ẹdo and Related Studies, 8, 49–58.Google Scholar
Ajíbóyè, O̩ládiípò; Déchaine, Rose-Marie; Gick, Bryan; & Pulleyblank, Douglas
(2011) Disambiguating Yorùbá tones: At the interface between syntax, morphology, phonology and phonetics. Lingua, 121, 1631–1648. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Akegne, Moïse; Esseba Ombessa, Lambert; Kibassa Otoke, Moïse; & Prittie, Rebecca
(2002) Nuasue Lexicon. Yaoundé: SIL.Google Scholar
Akinkugbe, F.
(1978) A comparative phonology of Yoruba dialects, Isekiri, and Igalaa. (PhD thesis). Ibadan: University of Ibadan.Google Scholar
Akinlabi, Akinbiyi
in preparation). Yoruba: A phonological grammar. Cambridge, MA: Center for African Studies, Harvard University.
(1985) Underspecification of tones in Yoruba. Ibadan: University of Ibadan.Google Scholar
(2001) Yoruba. In J. Garry & C. Rubino (Eds.), Facts about the world’s languages: An encyclopedia of the world’s major languages, past and present (pp. 836–841). New York & Dublin: The H. W. Wilson Company.Google Scholar
(2004) The sound system of Yoruba. In N. S. Lawal, M. N. O. Sadiku & A. Dopamu (Eds.), Understanding Yoruba life and culture (pp. 453–468). Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press Inc.Google Scholar
Akinlabi, Akinbiyi; & Liberman, Mark
(1995) On the phonetic interpretation of the Yoruba tonal system. In K. Elenius & P. Branderud (Eds.), Proceedings of the 13th international congress of phonetic sciences, Vol. 1 (pp. 42–45). Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology & Stockholm University.Google Scholar
(2000) The tonal phonology of Yoruba clitics. In B. Gerlach & J. Grijzenhout (Eds.), Clitics in phonology, morphology and syntax (pp. 31–62). Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
(2007) Tonal complexes: The prosodic organization of tones. Rutgers Optimal Archive, 911.Google Scholar
Akpakla, Bienvenu Jean
(1992) Alphabétisation et analphabétisme de retour au Bénin : le cas de Dogo [Literacy and returning to illiteracy in Benin: the case of Dogo]. (Mémoire de maîtrise). Cotonou: Université Nationale du Bénin.Google Scholar
Allington, Richard L.
(1983) Fluency: The neglected reading goal. The Reading Teacher, 36, 556–561. Google Scholar
Allington, Richard L.; Billen, Monica T.; & McCuiston, Kimberley
(2015) The potential impact of the common core state standards on reading volume. In P. D. Pearson & E. H. Hiebert (Eds.), Research-based practices for teaching common core literacy (pp. 161–177). New York & London: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
Altpeter, Elke Karin; Marx, Tobias; Nguyen, Nhung Xuan; Naumann, Aline; & Trauzettel-Klosinski, Susanne
(2015) Measurement of reading speed with standardized texts: A comparison of single sentences and paragraphs. Graefe’s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, 253(8), 1369–1375. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Anderson, Alida; & Wang, Min
(2012) The utility of Chinese tone processing skill in detecting children with English reading disabilities. Journal of Research in Reading, 35(3), 227–250. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Anderson, Lambert
(1959) Ticuna vowels with special regard to the system of five tonemes. Serie Lingüística Especial, Publicacaos do Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, 1, 76–119. Google Scholar
Angelelli, Paola; Valeria Marinelli, Chiara; & Burani, Cristina
(2014) The effect of morphology on spelling and reading accuracy: A study on Italian children. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1–10. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Anonymous
(1985a) Mberme pɔɔkɛ [Mbelime booklet]. Cobly: Sous-commission Mbermè, SAPRA-ATARA & CARDER-ATACORA. Google Scholar
(1985b) Mberme pɔɔkɛ : kɛ pɔɔkɛ taatikɛ [Mbelime booklet, volume 3]. Cobly: Sous-commission Mbermè, SAPRA-ATARA & CARDER-ATACORA.Google Scholar
(1985c) Mberme pɔɔkɛ : kɛ pɔɔkɛ yeerikɛ [Mbelime booklet, volume 2]. Cobly: Sous-commission Mbermè, SAPRA-ATARA & CARDER-ATACORA.Google Scholar
(2002) Rapport sur le cours de formation de formateurs/superviseurs pour le project dan du 27 au 30 août 2002 au college catholique Les martyres de l’Ouganda [Report on the training course for Dan project trainers and supervisors 27 – 30 August 2002 at the Ugandan Martyrs Catholic secondary school]. Man, Côte d’Ivoire: Programme d’alphabétisation en langue dan.Google Scholar
(2012) Projet Dan-est : alphabétisation, traduction, recherches. Rapport annuel d’activités du staff [Eastern Dan project: Literacy, translation and research. Annual report of staff activities]. Man, Côte d’Ivoire: Programme d’alphabétisation en langue dan.Google Scholar
Archangeli, Diana; & Pulleyblank, Douglas
(1989) Yoruba vowel harmony. Linguistic Inquiry, 20, 173–171. Google Scholar
Archangeli, Diane; & Pulleyblank, Douglas
(1993) Two rules or one…or none? [ATR] in Yoruba. In D. A. Peterson (Ed.), Proceedings of the 19th annual meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society: General session and parasession on semantic typology and semantic universals (pp. 13–26). Berkeley: Department of Linguistics, University of California. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Arouna, Sahouti
(1998) A contrastive study of English and Tem phonological systems: Problems of interference. (Mémoire de maîtrise). Lomé: Université de Lomé.Google Scholar
Atta, Essosimna
(2005) A comparative analysis of noun phrases in English and Tem. (Mémoire de maîtrise). Lomé: Université of Lomé.Google Scholar
Avdyli, Rrezarta; & Cuetos, Fernando
(2012) Reading difficulties in Albanian. Annals of Dyslexia, 62(3), 137–152. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Awobuluyi, Oladele
(1964) The phonology and morpho-phonemics of Yoruba. (MA thesis). New York: Columbia University.Google Scholar
(1979) Essentials of Yoruba grammar. Ibadan: University Press Limited.Google Scholar
Awoniyi, Timothy A.
(1976) Mother tongue education in West Africa: A historical background. In A. Bamgbose (Ed.), Mother tongue education: The West African experience (pp. 27–42). London & Paris: Hodder & Stoughton & UNESCO.Google Scholar
Babayiǧit, Selma; & Stainthorp, Rhona
(2010) Component processes of early reading, spelling, and narrative writing skills in Turkish: A longitudinal study. Reading and Writing, 23(5), 539–568. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bada, Médard Dominique
(2008) Règlement de la question de l’orthographe du yoruba au Bénin compte tenu de la pratique nigériane [Resolving the question of the Yoruba orthography in Benin taking Nigerian practice into account]. Paper presented at the Atelier sur la révision des outils d’écritures des langues béninoises , Lokossa, Benin.
Badejo, B. Rotimi Maiduguri
(1989) An experimental study of tone marking in Bura. Frankfurter Afrikanistische Blätter, 1, 44–51.Google Scholar
Baloubi, Désiré
(1998) African linguistics: Tones in Yoruba and Idaacha. Paper presented at the Pan-African Studies Conference, Indiana State University, Terre Haute IN.
(2000) The art of storytelling in Africa: The narrative structure of a folktale in the Idaacha dialect of Yoruba. Paper presented at the The Inaugural Southern Interdisciplinary Roundtable on African Studies (SIRAS), 14–15 April 2000 Frankfort, KY: Kentucky State University.
(2005) The morphophonemics of the Idaacha dialect of Yoruba. Charlotte, NC: Conquering Books. Google Scholar
Bamgboṣe, Ayo
. (n.d.). Yoruba orthography. In A. Bamgboṣe (Ed.) Orthographies of Nigerian languages manual 1. Lagos: National Language Centre, Federal Ministry of Education (c. 1982).Google Scholar
(1966a) The assimilated low tone in Yoruba. Lingua, 16, 1–13. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(1966b) A grammar of Yoruba. London: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar
(1967) A short Yoruba grammar. Ibadan: Heinemann Educational Books Ltd. Google Scholar
Bamgboṣe, Ayọ
(1965) Yoruba orthography. Ibadan: Ibadan University Press.Google Scholar
Barnwell, Katherine
(1979) A workshop guide for primer construction. Jos, Nigeria: Nigeria Bible Translation Trust.Google Scholar
Barr, R.; Blachowicz, C. L. Z.; & Wogman-Sadow, M.
(1995) Reading diagnosis for teachers: An instructional approach, 3rd edition. White Plains, NY: Longman. Google Scholar
Bateman, Janet
(1991) Iau orthography. Unpublished manuscript. Jakarta: SIL Indonesia.Google Scholar
Bawa-Bocco, A.
(1981) La syntaxe du tem, langue du Togo : essai de systématisation par groupes. (Thèse de troisième cycle). Bordeaux: Université de Bordeaux III. Google Scholar
Bearth, Thomas
(1977) Tone awareness and the teaching of reading and writing of tone. Document de travail, SIL cross-fertilisation series. Unpublished manuscript. Abidjan: SIL Côte d’Ivoire. Google Scholar
Bearth, Thomas; & Zemp, Hugo
(1967) The phonology of Dan (Santa). Journal of African Languages, 6(1), 9–29. Google Scholar
Bernard, Russell H.; Mbeh, George N.; & Handwerker, W. Penn
(1995) The tone problem. In A. Traill, R. Vossen & M. Biesele (Eds.), The complete linguist: Papers in memory of Patrick J. Dickens (pp. 27–44). Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe.Google Scholar
(2002) Does marking tone make tone languages easier to read? Human organisation, 61(4), 339–349. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bertho, J.
(1949) Langues voltaïques du Togo-nord et du Dahomey-nord [Gur languages of northern Togo and northern Dahomey]. Notes africaines, 44, 124–126. Google Scholar
Bird, Steven
(1999a) Strategies for representing tone in African writing systems. Written Language and Literacy, 2(1), 1–44. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(1999b) When marking tone reduces fluency: An orthography experiment in Cameroon. Language and Speech, 42, 83–115. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Blaxall, Janet; & Willows, Dale M.
(1984) Reading ability and text difficulty as influences on second graders’ oral reading errors. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76(2), 330–341. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Boily, Élisabeth; Ouellet, Chantal; & Turcotte, Catherine
(2015) Effects of an assisted repeated reading program on student fluency in a large class in Burkina Faso. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 174, 244–250. . CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bolli, Margrit
(1978) Writing tone with punctuation marks. Notes on Literacy, 23, 16–18. Google Scholar
(1980) Yacouba literacy report 2 (March 1977 – February 1979). Notes on Literacy, 31, 1–14.Google Scholar
(1983) The Victor Hugoes in Dan country: Developing a mother-tongue body of literature in a neoliterate society. Notes on Scripture in Use, 5, 3–14. Published version of a paper presented at the International Reading Association 19th world congress on reading, Dublin, 26th–30th July 1982.
(1989) The teaching of tone in the Dan language. Unpublished manuscript. Abidjan: SIL. Google Scholar
(1991a) Literacy and Scripture in use report: Dan project (Côte d’Ivoire). Unpublished manuscript. Abidjan: SIL.Google Scholar
(1991b) Orthography difficulties to be overcome by Dan people literate in French. Notes on Literacy, 65, 25–34.Google Scholar
(1992) L’alphabétisation en yacouba (dan) de Côte d’Ivoire [Literacy in Yacouba (Dan) of Côte d’Ivoire]. Unpublished manuscript. Abidjan: SIL. Google Scholar
Bolli, Margrit; & Flik, Eva
(1982) Guide d’orthographe pour la langue dan (dialecte gwetaawo) [Orthography guide for the Dan language (Gwetaawo dialect)]. Abidjan: SIL. Google Scholar
(2000) Cours-éclair de lecture pour les lecteurs du français apprenant à lire le dan gwɛɛtaawo [Intensive reading course for readers of French learning to reading Eastern Dan]. Abidjan: SIL. Google Scholar
Bolli, Margrit; Flik, Eva; & Bendor-Samuel, John
(1972) Testing the mutual intelligibility of dialects: Yakouba dialect survey. Paper presented at the 10th West African Languages Congress, Accra, 21st – 27th March 1972.
Boone, Douglas W.; Bradley, David P.; & Grant, Caroline A.
(1992) Central Yambasa Survey Report. Yaoundé: Summer Institute of Linguistics. https://​www​.sil​.org​/resources​/publications​/entry​/9234 (accessed 11 February 2021).
Boyd, Ginger
(2006a) Précis d’orthographe de langue nuasue (yangben) [Nuasue (Yangben) orthography statement]. Yaoundé: SIL Cameroun.Google Scholar
(2006b) Précis d’orthographe de langue nulibie [Nulibie orthography statement]. Yaoundé: Ministère de la Recherche Scientifique et de l’Innovation & SIL Cameroun.Google Scholar
(2006c) Précis d’orthographe de langue numála [Numala orthography statement]. Yaoundé: Ministère de la Recherche Scientifique et de l’Innovation & SIL Cameroun.Google Scholar
(2015a) Ébauche de la grammaire de base de la langue numala [Draft of the basic Numala grammar]. Yaoundé: Ministère de la Recherche Scientifique et de l’Innovation & CABTAL.Google Scholar
(2015b) The phonological systems of the Mbam languages with a focus on vowels and vowel harmony. Utrecht: LOT. http://​hdl​.handle​.net​/1887​/36063 (accessed 23 March 2021).
(2015c) Précis d’orthographe de langue nulibie [Nulibie orthography statement]. Yaoundé: Ministère de la Recherche Scientifique et de l’Innovation & SIL Cameroun.Google Scholar
(2015d) Précis d’orthographe de langue numála [Numala orthography statement]. Yaoundé: Ministère de la Recherche Scientifique et de l’Innovation & SIL Cameroun.Google Scholar
(2016) Précis d’orthographe de langue nuasue (yangben) [Nuasue (Yangben) orthography statement]. Yaoundé: SIL Cameroun.Google Scholar
Boëthius, Hélène
(1981) Ana / Ife survey. Unpublished manuscript. Lomé: SIL-Togo.Google Scholar
(1982a) Rapport d’un voyage à Kamina (Canton de Gberioko) le 18 mai 1982 [Report of a trip to Kamina (Gberioko Canton), 18 May 1982]. Unpublished manuscript. Lomé: SIL Togo.Google Scholar
(1982b) Rapport d’un voyage au Nigeria (Ile-Ife et Ibadan), du 20 au 24 mai 1982 [Report of a trip to Nigeria (Ile-Ife and Ibadan), 20–24 May 1982]. Unpublished manuscript. Lomé: SIL-Togo.Google Scholar
(1983) Description préliminaire des phonèmes segmentaux et types de syllabes ifè [Preliminary description of Ife segmental phonemes and syllable types]. In J. Nicole (Ed.), Études linguistiques préliminaires dans quelques langues du Togo (Vol. 110–137). Lomé: SIL-Togo.Google Scholar
(1987) Basic mood in Ife. Journal of West African Languages, 17(2), 43–70.Google Scholar
(1991) Writing tone in Ifè. Unpublished manuscript. Lomé: SIL-Togo.Google Scholar
Bukies, Ulrich; & Winrikou, Esaïe
(1991) Rapport des travaux de révision d’alphabet et de standardisation d’orthographe du naténi [Nateni alphabet revision and orthography standardization report]. Cotonou: SIL.Google Scholar
Burmeister, Jonathan
(1980) Tone orthography for Ivory Coast languages. Paper presented at the 14th West African Linguistics Congress, Université du Bénin, Cotonou.
Burnham, D.; Kim, J.; Davis, C.; Ciocca, V.; Schoknecht, C.; & Kasisopa, B.
(2011) Are tones phones? Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 108, 693–712. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bybee, Joan L.; Perkins, Revere; & Pagliuca, William
(1994) The evolution of grammar: Tense, aspect and modality in the languages of the world. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Bábaóga, Achille; & Bédiléne, Eboule Alain
(2009) Nuhúnhɔ́n nua 1 nua guanuna na guɔ́ŋa nulíbíe [Primer 1 in the Elip language]. Ombessa: Comité de langue nulibie (COLANUL) & SIL Cameroon.Google Scholar
Cahill, Michael
(2001) Avoiding tone marks: A remnant of English education? Notes on Literacy, 27(1), 13–22.Google Scholar
(2004) Tonal polarity in Kɔnni nouns. Studies in African Linguistics, 33(1), 1–34.Google Scholar
(2014) Non-linguistic factors in orthography development. In M. Cahill & K. Rice (Eds.), Developing orthographies for unwritten languages (pp. 9–26). Dallas, TX: SIL International.Google Scholar
Capo, Hounkpati B. C.
(1989) Defoid. In J. Bendor-Samuel (Ed.), The Niger-Congo Languages (pp. 275–290). New York & London: University Press of America & SIL.Google Scholar
Cardoso-Martins, C.
(2001) The reading abilities of beginning readers of Brazilian Portuguese: Implication for a theory of reading acquisition. Scientific Studies of Reading, 5, 289–317. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Castellanos Cruz, Miguel
(2014) Complejidad fonológica en el Chinanteco de Quiotepec: Nasalidad, fonación y tono [Phonological complexity in Quiotepec Chinantec: Nasality, phonation and tone]. (PhD dissertation). Mexico City: Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropología Social.Google Scholar
CENALA, & SIL
(1992) Naàteǹni Biɔhàma: Wàací pɔ̀kàta [Nateni primer: 1st edition]. Cotonou: Centre National de Linguistique Appliquée & SIL.Google Scholar
(1993/2010a) Naàteǹni Biɔhàma 1: Pɔ̀kàta cecetá [Nateni pre-primer]. Cotonou: Centre National de Linguistique Appliquée & SIL.Google Scholar
(1993/2010b) Naàteǹni wɛɛmá cèmu 1: Pɔ̀kàta cecetá [Nateni writing guide, volume 1]. Cotonou: Centre National de Linguistique Appliquée, Commission Nationale de Linguistique Naténi & SIL.Google Scholar
(1994/2010) Guide de transition français – naténi [French-Nateni transition guide]. Cotonou: Centre National de Linguistique Appliquée & SIL.Google Scholar
(1994/2013) Naàteǹni wɛɛmá cèmu 2: Pɔ̀kàtaɛ́ɛ̀ta [Nateni writing guide, volume 2] Cotonou: Centre National de Linguistique Appliquée, Commission Nationale de Linguistique Naténi & SIL.Google Scholar
(1995/2013) Naàteǹni Biɔhàma 3: Kam̀má pɔ̀kàta [Nateni easy reading book]. Cotonou: Centre National de Linguistique Appliquée & SIL. Google Scholar
CENALA
(1982) Résultats des travaux du premier séminaire sur le point des recherches en langue idaasha (variante du yoruba), du 13 au 18 septembre 1982 [Outcomes of the first workshop evaluating research in the Idaasha language (variant of Yoruba), 13–18 September 1982]. Dassa-Zoumé: Centre National de Linguistique Appliquée & Commission Nationale de Langue Idaasha.Google Scholar
(1987) Conférence culturelle dans le cadre du deuxième séminaire de recherche en langue idaasha du 31 août au 6 septembre 1987 [Cultural conference in the framework of the second workshop on Idaasha language research 31 August – 6 September 1987]. Dassa-Zoumé: Centre National de Linguistique Appliquée & Commission Linguistique Idaasha.Google Scholar
(2011) Alphabet des langues nationales béninoises : 6ème édition [Alphabet of Beninese national languages: 6th edition]. Cotonou: Centre National de Linguistique Appliquée avec le concours du Ministère de l’Alphabétisation et de la Promotion des Langues Nationales et de la Coopération Suisse.Google Scholar
Chang, Ji Mei; Hung, Daisy L.; & Tezeng, David J. L.
(1992) Miscue analysis of Chinese children’s reading behaviour at the entry level. Journal of Chinese linguistics, 20(1), 120–158.Google Scholar
Chang, Kun
(1953) On the tone system of the Miao-Yao languages. Language, 29, 374–378. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Cheffy, Ian
(2014) “It doesn’t put food on the table” and other good reasons why a literate world is a distant hope. Paper presented at the World Literacy Summit, Oxford, UK.
Chen, Jenn-Yeu; Lin, Wei-Chun; & Ferrand, Ludovic
(2003) Masked priming of the syllable in Mandarin Chinese speech production. Chinese Journal of Psychology, 45, 107–120.Google Scholar
Chirkova, Katia; & Michaud, Alexis
(2009) Approaching the prosodic system of Shixing. Language and Linguistics, 10(3), 539–568.Google Scholar
Clay, M. M.
(1968) A syntactic analysis of reading errors. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 2, 434–438. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(1969) Reading errors and self-correction behavior. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 39, 47–56. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
CLLM
(2000) Kɛ̄ pɔkɛ kɛ̄ n tōsīdī ū wākimɔ [Mbelime literacy teachers’ guide]. Cobly: Direction d’Alphabétisation & Commission Linguistique de la Langue Mbélimé.Google Scholar
(2003a) M̄ bɛ̄dímɛ pɔkɛ: Tī bɛ̄m̄mū ya tī sēpī kɛ̄ pɔkɛyɛndɔnkɛ [Mbelime primer, volume 1, 2nd edition]. Cobly: Direction Nationale de l’Alphabétisation et de l’education des adultes, Commission linguistique de la langue mbèlimè & SIL.Google Scholar
(2003b) M̄ bɛ̄dímɛ pɔkɛ: Tī bɛ̄m̄mū ya tī sēpī kɛ̄ pɔkɛyīēdīkɛ [Mbelime primer, volume 2, 2nd edition]. Cobly: Direction Nationale de l’Alphabétisation, Commission Linguistique de la Langue Mbèlimè & SIL.Google Scholar
CLTem, & SIL-Togo
(2012) Tɔ́m bíya kpeewú (Dictionnaire tem-français). Sokodé: SIL Togo et Comité de Langue Tem.Google Scholar
CMS
(1848) Rules for reducing unwritten language to alphabetic writing in Roman script, with reference especially to the languages spoken in Africa. London: Church Missionary Society. Reproduced in Spencer 1966:89–91.Google Scholar
CNLM
(2017) Rapport général du deuxième séminaire linguistique mbèlimè, 18–19 avril 2017 [General report of the second Mbelime linguistic seminar, 18–19 April 2017]. Unpublished manuscript. Cobly, Bénin: Commission National Linguistique Mbèlimè.Google Scholar
COLANUL
(2012) Yubu hia guanuna na guɔ́ŋa nulíbíe (Manuel pour lire et écrire la langue nulibie, 2ème édition) [Guide for reading and writing the Nulibie (Elip) language]. Yaoundé: Comité de langue nulibie (COLANUL) & SIL Cameroun. Google Scholar
COLANUM
(2009) Nsɛ dɛfɔ́nfɔn dɛbanan diɔŋɔ numaala [Let’s learn to read and write Numala (Mmala)]. Yaoundé: Comité de langue numaala (COLANUM) & SIL Cameroun.Google Scholar
Connell, Bruce; & Ladd, Robert
(1990) Aspects of pitch realisation in Yoruba. Phonology, 7(1), 1–29. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Copans, M.
(1971) Essai de phonologie du tem [A trial Tem phonology]. (Certificat de linguistique africaine). Paris: Institut de phonétique, Université de la Sorbonne Nouvelle, Paris III.Google Scholar
Cornevin, Robert
(1978) A propos de l’article de Gabriel Manessy sur le Niendé, langue de l’Atakora [About Gabriel Manessy’s article on Niende, a language of the Atakora]. Bulletin de l’IFAN, 40(B1), 208–210.Google Scholar
Cossu, G.; Shankweiler, I.; Liberman, Y.; & Gugliotta, M.
(1995) Visual and phonological determinants of misreadings in a transparent orthography. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 7, 237–256. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Coupé, Christophe; Oh, Yoon Mi; Pellegrino, François; & Marsico, Egidio
(2014) Cross-linguistic investigations of oral and silent reading. Paper presented at the 15th Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association (Interspeech 2014): Celebrating the diversity of spoken languages, Singapore, 14–18 September 2014.
Courtenay, Karen
(1968) A generative phonology of Yorùbá. (PhD dissertation). Los Angeles: University of California.Google Scholar
Crowther, Samuel Ajayi
(1843) Vocabulary of the Yoruba language. London: Church Missionary Society.Google Scholar
(1849) The Yoruba primer. Iwe Ekinni on ni tu awon ara Egba ati awon ara Yoruba. London: Church Missionary Society.Google Scholar
(1852a) A vocabulary of the Yoruba language. London: Church Missionary Society.Google Scholar
(1852b) Yoruba grammar. London: Church Missionary Society.Google Scholar
DAPR
n.d.-a). Iwe ɛ̀kɔ́ èdè ìdàáshà. Programme d’alphabétisation des masses, cours A [Idaasha Primer. Mass literacy program, course A]. Cotonou: Direction de l’Alphabétisation et de la Presse Rurale.
n.d.-b). Iwe ɛ̀kɔ́ èdè ìdàáshà. Programme d’alphabétisation des masses, cours B [Idaasha Primer: Mass literacy program, course B]. Cotonou: Direction de l’Alphabétisation et de la Presse Rurale.
n.d.-c). Iwe ɛ̀kɔ́ èdè ìdàáshà. Programme d’alphabétisation des masses, cours C [Idaasha Primer. Mass literacy programme, course C]. Cotonou: Direction de l’Alphabétisation et de la Presse Rurale.
(1986) Séminaire national de formation des cadres d’alphabétisation et de postalphabétisation à Dassa-Zoumé du 3 au 23 Février 1986 [National training seminar for literacy and post-literacy managers, Dassa-Zoumé, 3–23 February 1986] Cotonou: Direction de l’Alphabétisation et de la Presse Rurale.Google Scholar
Davidson, Marcia; Korda, Medina; & White Collins, Ollie
(2011) Teachers’ use of EGRA for continuous assessment. The case of EGRA plus: Liberia. In A. Gove & A. Wetterberg (Eds.), The Early Grade Reading Assessment: Applications and interventions to improve basic literacy (pp. 113–138). Research Triangle Park, NC: RTI Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Davis, Chris; Schoknecht, Colin; Kim, Jeesun; & Burnham, Denis
(2016) The time course for processing vowels and lexical tones: Reading aloud Thai words. Language and Speech, 59(2), 196–218. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Davis, Patricia M.
(2004) Reading is for knowing: Literacy acquisition, retention and usage among the Machiguenga (Vol. 39–58). Dallas, TX: SIL International.Google Scholar
(2014) Cognition and learning: A review of the literature with reference to ethnolinguistic minorities: SIL e-book 49. Dallas, TX: SIL International. https://​www​.sil​.org​/resources​/archives​/52168 (accessed 11 February 2021).
De Craene, Robert
(1986) Le verbe conjugé en tem [The Tem conjugated verb]. Studies in African Linguistics, 17(1), 1–37.Google Scholar
(1989) Lexique du marché, tem – français, français – tem [Tem-French French-Tem market lexicon]. Sokodé: EDITem.Google Scholar
De Craene, Robert; & Tchagbra, L. Soli Nʼgobou
(1996a) Tem ŋmáádɩ: 1 ŋmáádɩ-bíya na ɖaazɩ́tɩ [Writing Tem: 1 alphabet and punctuation]. Sokodé: SIL.Google Scholar
(1996b) Tem ŋmáádɩ: 2 lowú (Writing Tem: 2 Tone). Sokodé: ADELME-Tem & SIL Togo.Google Scholar
(1997a) Apprendre à lire tem en 15 leçons, version Braille [Learn to read Tem in 15 lessons, Braille version]. Sokodé: ADELME-Tem.Google Scholar
(1997b) Tem ŋmáádɩ: 3 Kʊnʊŋ máádɩ-dɛ́ɛ sááfʊ́wá (Writing Tem: 3 Grammatical categories). Sokodé: SIL.Google Scholar
(1997c) Tem ŋmáádɩ: 4 Lakásɩ tɔmbíya-dɛ́ɛ tɩmɛ́ (Writing Tem: 4 verb conjugations). Sokodé: SIL.Google Scholar
(1998) Tem ŋmáádɩ: 5 Lóóni-dɛ́ɛ ɖamá mám (Writing Tem: 5 Tone perturbation). Sokodé: ADELME-Tem & SIL Togo.Google Scholar
(2009) Apprendre à lire tem en 15 leçons, 3e édition [Learn to read Tem in 15 lessons, 3rd edition]. Sokodé: Comité de Langue Tem.Google Scholar
De Craene, Robert; Ouradeï, T. Lambo; & Médjésirbi, Agoro
(2008) Tem ŋmáádɩ [Tem primer, vol. 1–3], 6th ed. Sokodé: ADELME-Tem.Google Scholar
Deacon, S. Hélène; Benere, Jenna; & Pasquarella, Adrian
(2013) Reciprocal relationship: Children’s morphological awareness and their reading accuracy across grades 2 to 3. Developmental Psychology, 49(6), 1113–1126. . CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Defior, Sylvia; Alegría, Jesús; Titos, Rosa; & Martos, Francisco
(2008) Using morphology when spelling in a shallow orthographic system: The case of Spanish. Cognitive Development, 23(1), 204–2015. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Delord, Jacques
(1988) Les dialectes kabiyè : étude synoptique et comparative [Kabiye dialects: a synoptic and comparative study]. Lomé: Université du Bénin (renommée Université de Lomé).Google Scholar
Der-Houssikian, Haig
(1980a) Tem communication and cultural handbook. Brattleboro, VT: Peace Corps.Google Scholar
(1980b) Tem grammar handbook. Brattleboro, VT: Peace Corps.Google Scholar
(1980c) Tem special skills handbook. Brattleboro, VT: Peace Corps.Google Scholar
Derman, Tankaré
(1983) Dictionnaire Tem-français-allemand / Tem-Französisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch [Tem-French-German dictionary]. Saarbrücken: Universität des Saarlandes.Google Scholar
(2017) Tombia dee Takarida Tem ná Fáránsi ná Jááma [Tem-French-German dictionary]. Frankfurt: Zambon.Google Scholar
Délànọ̀, Isaac O.
(1965) A modern Yoruba grammar. London: Thomas Nelson & Sons.Google Scholar
(1969) A dictionary of Yoruba monosyllabic verbs. Ile-Ife: Institute of African Studies, University of Ife.Google Scholar
Diemer, M. N.
(2015) The contributions of phonological awareness and naming speed to the reading fluency, accuracy, comprehension and spelling of Grade 3 isiXhosa readers. (MA dissertation). Grahamstown: Rhodes University.Google Scholar
Dixon, Maureen; & Kaminska, Zofia
(2007) Does exposure to orthography affect children’s spelling accuracy? Journal of Research in Reading, 30(2), 184–197. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Dowhower, S. L.
(1987) Effects of repeated reading on second-grade transitional readers’ fluency and comprehension. Reading Research Quarterly, 22, 389–406. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(1991) Speaking of prosody: Fluency’s unattended bedfellow. Theory into Practice, 30(3), 165–175. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Draper, Kim; & Spaull, Nic
(2015) Examining oral reading fluency among rural Grade 5 English Second Language (ESL) learners in South Africa: An analysis of NEEDU 2013. South African Journal of Childhood Education, 5(2), 44–77. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Dryer, M. S.; & Haspelmath, M.
(2013) The world atlas of language structures online. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. http://​wals​.info​/languoid​/lect​/wals​_code​_tem (accessed 26 January 2021).
Dubeck, Margaret M.; Jukes, Matthew C. H.; & Okello, George
(2012) Early primary literacy instruction in Kenya. Comparative Education Review, 56(1), 48–68. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Duitsman, John
(1986) Testing two systems for marking tone in Western Krahn. Notes on Literacy, 49, 2–10.Google Scholar
Duke, Nell K.; Pearson, P. David; Strachan, Stephanie L.; & Billman, Alison K.
(2011) Essential elements of fostering and teaching reading comprehension. In S. J. Samuels & A. E. Farstrup (Eds.), What research has to say about reading instruction, 4th edition (pp. 51–93). Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Google Scholar
Eberhard, David M.; Simons, Gary F.; & Fennig, Charles D.
(Eds.) (2020) Ethnologue: Languages of the world, 23rd edition. Dallas, TX: SIL International. On-line version: http://​www​.ethnologue​.com (accessed 26 January 2021).
Edmondson, Jerold A.; & Gregerson, Kenneth J.
(1992) On five-level tone systems. In J. J. H. Shina & W. R. Merrifield (Eds.), Language in Context: Essays for Robert E. Longacre (pp. 555–576). Dallas: SIL & University of Texas at Arlington.Google Scholar
Eisenberg, Peter
(2007) Orthographie ohne Literalität: Blinde Flecken der Rechtschreibreform [Orthography without literacy: Blind spots of the orthography reform]. Zeitschrift für Germanistische Linguistik, 34(1–2), 131–154.Google Scholar
Ekambi, Aline
(1990) Esquisse phonologique du nulibie [Nulibie phonology sketch]. (MA thesis). Yaoundé: University of Yaoundé.Google Scholar
Elliot, A. Raymond; Edmondon, Jerold A.; & Cruz, Fausto Sandoval
(2016) Illustrations of the IPA: Chicahuaxtla Triqui. Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 46(3), 351–365. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Essien, Udo E.
(1977) To end ambiguity in a tone language. In P. F. A. Kotey & H. Der-Houssikian (Eds.), Languages and linguistics problems in Africa. Proceedings of the 7th conference on African linguistics (pp. 155–167). Columbia, SC: Hornbeam Press.Google Scholar
Fagbọrun, J. Gbenga
(1989) Disparities in tonal and vowel representation: Some practical problems in Yoruba orthography. Journal of West African Languages, 19(2), 74–92.Google Scholar
Falola, Toyin; & Akinyemi, Akintunde
(Eds.) (2016) Encyclopedia of the Yoruba. Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
Faroud, F.
(1929) Chez les Dassa [Among the Dassa people]. Echo des missions africaines de Lyon, nos 6–7 (juin-juillet) et 8–9 (août-septembre).Google Scholar
Fazio, Lucy L.
(2001) The effect of corrections and commentaries on the journal writing accuracy of minority- and majority-language students. Journal of Second Language Writing, 10(4), 235–249. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Fábùnmi, Felix Abídèmí.
(2010) Vigesimal numerals on Ifẹ̀ (Togo) and Ifẹ̀ (Nigeria) dialects of Yorùbá. Linguistik online, 43(3), 31–44.Google Scholar
Fákínlẹ̀dé, Kayode J.
(2003) English-Yoruba, Yoruba-English modern practical dictionary. New York: Hippocrene Books.Google Scholar
(2016) Body and language idioms. In T. Falola & A. Akinyemi (Eds.), Encyclopedia of the Yoruba (pp. 48–52). Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
Flik, Eva
(1977) Tone glides and registers in five Dan dialects. Linguistics, 201, 5–59. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
FME
(1974) Àkọtọ́ èdè Yorùbá (Yoruba orthography). Lagos: Joint Consultative Committee on Education, Federal Ministry of Education.Google Scholar
Freeland, Jennifer T.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Jackson, Bertha; McDaniel, C. Elizabeth; & Smith, Stephanie
(2000) Measuring and increasing silent reading comprehension rates: Empirically validating a repeated readings intervention. Psychology in the Schools, 37, 415–429. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Freire, Paolo
(1970) Pedagogy of the oppressed (Myra Bergman Ramos, Trans.) New York: Seabury Press (orginally published as Pedagogía del oprimido 1968).Google Scholar
Frieke-Kappers, Claertje
(1991) Tone orthography in African languages – a recommendation. Working papers in linguistics (Vol. 40). Amsterdam: Vrye Universiteit.Google Scholar
Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; & Maxwell, Linn
(1988) The validity of informal reading comprehension measures. Remedial and Special Education, 9(2), 20–28. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Hosp, Michelle K.; & Jenkins, Joseph R.
(2001) Oral reading fluency as an indicator of reading competence: A theoretical, empirical and historical analysis. Scientific Studies of Reading, 5, 239–256. . CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Gardner, Mary
(2003) L’orthographe ifè : pourquoi est-elle telle qu’elle est? [The Ife orthography: Why is it like it is?]. Paper presented at the Ife orthography forum, Doumé, Benin, 16 December 2003.
Gardner, Mary; & Graveling, Elizabeth
(Eds.) (2000) Oŋù-afɔ̀ ŋa ńfɛ̀ òŋu òkpì-ŋà ŋa ńfãrãsé [Ife-French dictionary]. Atakpamé: SIL-Togo. Google Scholar
Gardner, Mary; & Setodji, Kodjo
(2008) La prononciation des lettres en français : une aide préliminaire pour les apprenants ifè [Pronouncing French letters: A preliminary aid for Ife learners]. Atakpamé: SIL-Togo.Google Scholar
Gblem-Poidi, Honorine; & Kantchoa, Laré
(2012) Les langues du Togo : état de la recherche et perspectives [The languages of Togo: State of the research and prospects]. Paris: Harmattan.Google Scholar
Goikoetxea, Edurne
(2006) Reading errors in first- and second-grade readers of a shallow orthography: Evidence from Spanish. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 76(2), 333–350. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Gonçalves, Kodjo
(1984) Esquisse phonologique de l’ifè, langue kwa du Togo [Phonological sketch of Ife, a Kwa language of Togo]. (Mémoire de DEA). Paris: Université de la Sorbonne Nouvelle, Paris III.Google Scholar
Good III, R.; & Kaminski, R. A.
(2002) Dynamic indicators of basic early literacy skills, 6th edition. Eugene, OR: Institute for Development of Educational Achievement.Google Scholar
Gove, Amber; & Wetterberg, Anna
(2011) The early grade reading assessment: Applications and interventions to improve basic literacy. Research Triangle Park, NC: RTI Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Graham, Barbara Elaine; & van Ginkel, Agatha J.
(2014) Assessing early grade reading: The value and limits of ‘words per minute’. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 27(3), 244–259. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Grollemund, Rebecca
(2012) Nouvelles approches en classification : application aux langues bantu du nord-ouest [New approaches to classification: An application to the north-west Bantu languages]. (PhD dissertation). Lyon: Université Lumière Lyon 2.Google Scholar
Guarisma, Gladys; & Paulian, Christiane
(1986) Dialectométrie lexicale de quelques parlers bantous de la zone A [Lexical dialectometry of some Zone A Bantu varieties]. In G. Guarisma & W. J. G. Möhlig (Eds.), La méthode dialectométrique (pp. 93–176). Berlin: Dietrich Reimer.Google Scholar
Gudschinsky, Sarah C.
(1973) A manual of literacy for preliterate peoples. Ukarumpa: Summer Institute of Linguistics. Also available in SIL International Digital Resources LinguaLinks library 5.0 plus.Google Scholar
Guiles, R.
(1943) Effect of formal spelling on spelling accuracy. The Journal of Educational Research, 37(4), 284–289. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Guthrie, John T.; & Humenick, Nicole M.
(2004) Motivating student to read: Evidence for classroom practices that increase reading motivation and achievement. In P. McCardle & V. Chhabra (Eds.), The voice of evidence in reading research (pp. 329–354). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.Google Scholar
Guthrie, Malcolm
(1971a) Comparative Bantu: An introduction to the comparative linguistics and prehistory of the Bantu languages, vol. 2. Farnborough: Gregg Press.Google Scholar
(1971b) Comparative Bantu: An introduction to the comparative linguistics and prehistory of the Bantu languages, vol. 4. Farnborough: Gregg Press.Google Scholar
Hale, Andrea D.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Wilhoit, Brian; Ciancio, Dennis; & Morrow, Jennifer A.
(2012) Variance in broad reading accounted for by measures of reading speed embedded within maze and comprehension rate measures. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 30(6), 539–554. . CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hammond, Kate; & Hamilton, Sarah
(1997) Phonologie et orthographe de la langue mbèlimè [Phonology and orthography of the Mbelime language]. Cotonou: SIL.Google Scholar
Hanemann, Ulrike; & McKay, Veronica
(2019) Learning in the mother tongue: Examining the learning outcomes of the South African Kha Ri Gude literacy campaign. International Review of Education, 65(2), 351–387. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Harley, Matthew; & Oyeniyi, Pelumi
(2016) Marking tone in Yoruba: Does it increase fluency in reading? Paper presented at the Jos Linguistics Circle, Jos, Nigeria.
(2019) Putting the Yoruba orthography to the test: Finding its weaknesses and how to fix them. Paper presented at the Jos Linguistics Circle, Jos, Nigeria.
Hartell, Rhonda L.
(Ed.) (1993) Alphabets of Africa. Dakar: UNESCO & SIL.Google Scholar
Hatfield, Deborah H.; & McHenry, Michael
(2011) A sociolinguistic survey of the Mbelime language area. Journal of Language Survey Reports 2011-010. Dallas, TX: SIL International. https://​togo​-benin​.sil​.org​/resources​/archives​/41563 (accessed 9 February 2021).
Hazoume, P.
(1929) Journal de voyage de Cotonou à Dassa-Zoumé [Travel diary from Cotonou to Dassa-Zoumé]. La reconnaissance africaine, 14.Google Scholar
Heikkilä, Riikka; Aro, Mikko; Närhi, Vesa; Westerholm, Jari; & Ahonen, Timo
(2013) Does training in syllable recognition improve reading speed? A computer-based trial with poor readers from second and third grade. Scientific Studies of Reading, 17(6), 398–414. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Heimbach, Ernest E.
(1969) White Hmong-English dictionary. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University.Google Scholar
Henrich, Joseph; Heine, Steven J.; & Norenzayan, Ara
(2010a) Most people are not WEIRD. Nature, 466, 29. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2010b) The weirdest people in the world? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 33, 61–135. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hollenbach, Barbara E.
(2007) Tone languages and language (un)awareness. SIL Language Forum for Language Fieldwork. Dallas, TX. https://​www​.sil​.org​/resources​/publications​/entry​/7773 (accessed 24 March 2021).
Hombert, J.-M.
(1977) Consonant types, vowel height, and tone in Yoruba. Studies in African Linguistics, 8, 173–190.Google Scholar
Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi
(2016) The role of executive functions in the reading process. In A. Khateb & I. Bar-Kochva (Eds.), Reading fluency: Current insights from neurocognitive research and intervention studies (Vol. 12, pp. 51–63). Cham: Springer.Google Scholar
Hudson, Roxanne F.; Lane, Holly B.; & Pullen, Paige C.
(2005) Reading fluency assessment and instruction: What, why, and how? The Reading Teacher, 58(8), 702–714. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Huemer, S.; Aro, M.; Landerl, K.; & Lyytinen, H.
(2010) Repeated reading of syllables among Finnish-speaking children with poor reading skills. Scientific Studies of Reading, 14(4), 317–340. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Huff, Christopher; & Payne, Elinor
(2012) Disambiguation of tonally unspecified Mandarin syllables. In Q. Ma (Ed.), Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Speech Prosody 2012 (pp. 107–110). Shanghai: Tongji University Press.Google Scholar
Hunter, Georgia G.
(1994) Reading transfer: A practical guide to making transition materials. Tucson, AZ: SIL Mexico.Google Scholar
Hyman, Larry
(2003) “Abstract” vowel harmony in Kàlɔ̀ŋ: A system driven account. In P. Sauzet & A. Zribi-Hertz (Eds.), Typologie des langues d’Afrique et universaux de la grammaire (pp. 85–112). Paris: Harmattan.Google Scholar
, Jírén; & Jiāng, Zhúyí
(1985) Nàxīyǔ jiǎnzhì [A brief description of the Naxi language]. Beijing: The Ethnic Publishing House. Google Scholar
Ibrahim, Raphiq; Khateb, Asaid; & Taha, Haitham
(2013) How does type of orthography affect reading in Arabic and Hebrew as first and second languages? Open Journal of Modern Linguistics, 3(1), 40–46. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Idiata, Daniel Franck
(2000) Le système mmala (groupe A 60) [The Mmala system (group A 60)]. In D. F. Idiata (Ed.), Les classes nominales et leur semantisme dans les langues bantu du nord-ouest. Lincom Studies in African Linguistics (Vol. 48, pp. 23–32). Munich: Lincom Europa.Google Scholar
IEI
(2012) Guide de transition français – idaatcha [French-Idaasha transition guide]. Cotonou: Assocation Ìlɔsíwájú Èdè Ìdàáshà, Wycliffe Bénin & SIL.Google Scholar
Igué, A. M.; Odoun, K. D.; Iroko, A. F.; Tchitchi, T.; Aguidi, R.; Kinhoun, S.; Fisher, D.; Dindi, J.
(1993) Etude dialectologique des parlers yoruba du Bénin, du Nigeria et du Togo [Dialectal study of the Yoruba varieties in Benin, Nigeria and Togo]. Cotonou: Centre National de Linguistique Appliquée.Google Scholar
ILA
(1979) Une orthographe pratique des langues ivoiriennes [A practical orthography for Ivoirian languages]. Abidjan: Institut de Linguistique Appliquée, Université d’Abidjan.Google Scholar
INSAE
(2015) RGPH4: Que retenir des effectifs de la population en 2013? [RGPH4: What can be learned from the 2013 population sizes?]. Cotonou: Institut National de la Statistique et de l’Analyse Économique. https://​www​.insae​-bj​.org​/images​/docs​/insae​-statistiques​/demographiques​/population​/Resultats%20definitifs%20RGPH4​.pdf (accessed 26 January 2021).
Isaac, Kendall; & Boyd, Ginger
(2015) Ébauche de la grammaire de base de la langue nuasuɛ [Draft of the basic Nuasuɛ grammar]. Yaoundé: Ministère de la Recherche Scientifique et de l’Innovation & CABTAL.Google Scholar
Jenkins, J. R.; Fuchs, L. S.; van den Broek, P.; Espin, C.; & Deno, S. L.
(2003) Sources of individual differences in reading comprehension and reading fluency. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 719–729. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Jiménez, J. E.; & Hernández, I.
(2000) Word identification and reading disorders in the Spanish language. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 33, 44–60. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Job, R.; Peressotti, F.; & Cusinato, A.
(1998) Lexical effects in naming pseudowords in shallow orthographies: Further empirical data. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 24, 622–630. Google Scholar
Jukes, Matthew C. H.; Turner, Elizabeth L.; Dubeck, Margaret M.; Halliday, Katherine E.; Inyega, Hellen N.; Wolf, Sharon; Zuilkowski, Stephanie S.; & Brooker, Simon J.
(2017) Improving literacy instruction in Kenya through teacher professional development and text messages support: A cluster randomized trial. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 10(3), 449–481. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Just, Marcel A.; & Carpenter, Patricia C.
(1980) A theory of reading: From eye fixations to comprehension. Psychological Review, 87, 329–354. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Kaba, Elizabeth
(1988) Esquisse phonologique du mmaala (dialect yambassa) [Mmala phonology sketch (Yambassa dialect)]. (MA thesis). Yaoundé: University of Yaoundé.Google Scholar
Kabo, Mawuena; & Kohler, Anna
(1983) Abécédaire Ifɛ̀ [Ife alphabet book]. Atakpamé: Comité Provisoire de Langue Ifɛ̀ & SIL-Togo.Google Scholar
Kabore, Raphaël; & Tchagbalé, Zakari
(1998) ATR, ouverture et arrondissement vocaliques dans quelques systèmes africains [ATR, aperture and vowel rounding in some African systems]. Fait de langues : les langues d’afriques subsahariennes, 6(11), 467–490. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Kadyamusuma, McLoddy R.; & Kadenge, Maxwell
(2013) The potential effect of non-tone marking on homograph processing in Shona: A preliminary exploration. Per Linguam, 29(2), 85–94. Google Scholar
Kamil, Michael L.
(2004) Vocabulary and comprehension instruction: Summary and implications of the National Reading Panel findings. In P. McCardle & V. Chhabra (Eds.), The voice of evidence in reading research (pp. 213–234). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.Google Scholar
Kanashiro, Área Regina; Ramos, Rogério; & de Cássia Thahira, Regiane
(2008) Guia do acordo ortográfico [Orthography agreement guide]. São Paolo: Moderna.Google Scholar
Kességbeu, Mognan Alphonse
(2008) Recensement des lecteurs Dan de l’Est par village et le nombre de ceux qui savent en dan (sic) [Census of Eastern Dan readers by village and by the number of those who know in Dan (sic)]. Unpublished manuscript. Man, Côte d’Ivoire.Google Scholar
Kibassa, Otoke
(2010) Kilánda ki nuasúɛ 1 [Yangben primer book 1]. Yaoundé: Comité de langue Nuasuɛ (COLANU) & SIL Cameroun.Google Scholar
Kibassa, Otoke; Okuno, Tchopito; & Pianga, Hélène
(2015) Kulááŋa, kuɔ́ŋɔ Nuasúɛ [Manual for reading and writing Nuasue (Yangben), 2nd edition]. Yaoundé: Comité de langue nuasue (COLANU) & SIL Cameroon.Google Scholar
Kim, Young-Suk; & Petscher, Yaacov
(2013) Considering word characteristics for spelling accuracy: Evidence from Korean-speaking children. Learning and Individual Differences, 23, 80–86. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Kintsch, W.; & Van Dijk, T. A.
(1978) Toward a model of text comprehension and production. Psychological Review, 85, 363–394. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Kirwan, David M.
(1983) “Barking at print”: An attempt to make teachers more aware. World Englishes, 2(4), 234–236. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Klauda, Susan L. and Guthrie, John T.
(2008) Relationships of three components of reading fluency to reading comprehension, Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(2), 310–321. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Klaver, Marquita
(1988) A grammatical sketch of Ifè. Unpublished manuscript. Lomé: SIL-Togo.Google Scholar
(1995) Two Ifé particles and their discourse function. Journal of West African Languages, 25(2), 107–113.Google Scholar
(1999) A look at Ifɛ̀ connectives. In E. Loos (Ed.), Logical relations in discourse (pp. 67–72). Dallas, TX: SIL.Google Scholar
Kleinewillinghöfer, Ulrich
(1997) The Gurunsi languages: A summary of the state of the art. Cahiers voltaïques / Gur Papers, 2, 43–52. Google Scholar
Klem, Herbert V.
(1982) Special difficulties in reading tone languages. In H. V. Klem (Ed.), Oral communication of the Scriptures: Insights from African oral art (pp. 19–25). Pasadena, CA: William Carey Library.Google Scholar
Kluge, Angela
(2007) A synchronic lexical study of the Ede language continuum of West Africa: The effects of different similarity judgment criteria. Afrikanistik online. https://​www​.afrikanistik​-aegyptologie​-online​.de​/archiv​/2007​/1328​/klugeangelka1apr2008pdf​.pdf (accessed 26 January 2021).
(2011a) A sociolinguistic survey of the Ede language communities of Benin and Togo, volume 4: Idaca language area. Journal of Language Survey Reports 2011–005. Dallas, TX: SIL International. https://​togo​-benin​.sil​.org​/resources​/archives​/41519 (accessed 10 February 2021).
(2011b) A sociolinguistic survey of the Ede language communities of Benin and Togo. Introduction and volume 1: Ede language family – Background and assessment methodology. Journal of Language Survey Reports, 2011–002. Dallas, TX: SIL International. https://​togo​-benin​.sil​.org​/fr​/resources​/archives​/41538 (accessed 10 February 2021).
Koblitz, Courtland William, Jr.
(1985) A post-hoc analysis of oral reading miscues generated by second, fourth and sixth grade students taught to read with two different writing systems: ITA and traditional orthography. (PhD dissertation). Edwardsville, IL: Southern Illinois University.Google Scholar
Koelle, S. W.
(1854) Polyglotta Africana: Or a comparative vocabulary of nearly three hundred words and phrases, in more than one hundred distinct African languages. London: Church Missionary House.Google Scholar
Koffi, Ettien
(2014) Towards an optimal representation of tones in the orthographies of African languages. Linguistic Portfolios, 3(12), 163–190.Google Scholar
Kohler, Anna
(1983) Le ton en ifè [Tone in Ife]. In J. Nicole (Ed.), Études linguistiques préliminaires dans quelques langues du Togo (pp. 138–156). Lomé: SIL Togo.Google Scholar
(1984a) Apprendre l’ifè [Learning Ife]. Unpublished manuscript. Lomé: SIL-Togo.Google Scholar
(1984b) Vowel sandhi in ifè. Unpublished manuscript. SIL-Togo, Lomé.Google Scholar
Kordow, H. Moubashir
(2006) Juz Amma : essai d’interprétation du Coran en langue kotokoli (tem) [Juz Amma: Trial interpretation of the Quran in the Kotokoli (Tem) language. Qatar: Ligue des Oulema du Togo & Ministère des Affaires Islamiques.Google Scholar
(2007) Tem ŋmáádɩ kpɛlɛḿ tákárɩɖá sɩ́ɩ́lɛ́ ńgɩ: Apprendre l’écriture en Tem – lettres romaines et arabes [Learn to read in Tem – Roman and Arabic letters]. Sokodé: Publisher unspecified.Google Scholar
(2013) Traduction tem du livre Al-Akhdari [Tem translation of the Al-Akhdari book]. Sokodé: Publisher unspecified. Google Scholar
Kouyomou, Odoun Dieudonné
(1986) Phonologie de la langue idaasha [Phonology of the Idaasha language]. (Mémoire de maîtrise). Abomey-Calavi: Université Nationale du Bénin.Google Scholar
(1989) Apprenons à lire et à écrire en langue idàáshà [Let’s learn to read and write in the Idaasha language]. Cotonou: Centre National de Linguistique Appliquée.Google Scholar
(1991) Apprenons à transcrire la langue ifè [Let’s learn how to transcribe the Ife language]. Cotonou: Centre National de Linguistique Appliquée.Google Scholar
(1991a) Èdè ìdàáshà kíko [How to transcribe Idaasha]. Cotonou: Centre National de Linguistique Appliquée.Google Scholar
(1991b) L’énoncé et les prédicatifs nominaux en idàáshà [The utterence and nominal predicatives in Idaasha]. Cotonou: Centre National de Linguistique Appliquée.Google Scholar
Kroeker, Menno
(1996) Txa²wã¹wãn³txa² kwa³jan³txa²wãn³txa² hau³hau³kon³nha²jau³su² (Dicionário escolar bilíngue: Nambikuara – Português, Português – Nambikuara) [Bilingual school dictionary: Nambikuara – Portuguese, Portuguese – Nambikuara]. Porto Velho: SIL.Google Scholar
Kuhn, Melanie R.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; & Meisinger, Elizabeth B.
(2010) Aligning theory and assessment of reading fluency: Automaticity, prosody, and definitions of fluency. Reading Research Quarterly, 45(2), 230–251. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Kutsch Lojenga, Constance
(1986) Some experiences in writing and teaching tone in Africa. Notes on Literacy, Special issue 1, 59–65.Google Scholar
(1989) Transition primers. Notes on Literacy, 60, 31–35.Google Scholar
(1993) The writing and reading of tone in Bantu languages. Notes on Literacy, 19, 1–19.Google Scholar
(2008) The orthography of tone in African languages. Paper presented at the 5th symposium “The idea of writing: the unspoken parts of writing”, Leiden University, the Netherlands.
(2014) Orthography and tone: A tone system typology with implications for orthography development. In M. Cahill & K. Rice (Eds.), Developing orthographies for unwritten languages (pp. 49–72). Dallas, TX: SIL International.Google Scholar
Köhler, Oswin
(1964) Gur languages in the Polyglotta Africana. Sierra Leone Revue, 3, 65–73.Google Scholar
La Velle, C. R.
(1974) An experimental study of Yoruba tone. Studies in African Linguistics, Supplement 5, 185–194. Google Scholar
LaBerge, D.; & Samuels, S. Jay
(1974) Towards a theory of automatic information processing in reading. Cognitive Psychology, 6, 293–323. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Labov, William
(1970) The study of language in its social context. Studium Generale, 23, 30–87.Google Scholar
Ladefoged, Peter
(1964) A phonetic study of West African languages: An auditory-instrumental survey. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Land, Sandra
(2011) Open to the flaw: Comparing the different skills required for reading English and isiZulu. Language Matters, 42(1), 50–68. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Lange, Marie-France
(1991) Cent cinquante ans de scolarisation au Togo : bilan et perspectives [150 years of schooling in Togo: Summary and prospects]. Lomé: Presses de l’Université du Bénin (renamed Université de Lomé).Google Scholar
Laniran, Yetunde Olabisi
(1993) Intonation in tone languages: The phonetic implementation of tones in Yoruba. Itaca, NY: DMLL Publications.Google Scholar
(1995) Implementing a floating tone. In K. Elenius & P. Branderud (Eds.), Proceedings of the 13th international congress of phonetic sciences, Vol. 2 (pp. 390–393). Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology & Stockholm University. Google Scholar
Laniran, Yetunde Olabisi; & Clements, George N.
(1995) A long-distance dependency in Yoruba tone realization. In K. Elenius & P. Branderud (Eds.), Proceedings of the 13th international congress of phonetic sciences, Vol. 2 (pp. 734–737). Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology & Stockholm University.Google Scholar
(2003) Downstep and high raising: Interacting factors in Yoruba tone production. Journal of Phonetics, 31, 203–250. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Lauber, Edward
(1983) The indigenisation of literacy in Dan (Yacouba). Notes on Literacy, 37, 16–21.Google Scholar
Lee, Chao-Yang
(2007) Does horse activate mother? Processing lexical tone in form priming. Language and Speech, 50(1), 101–123. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Lee, Ernest
(1982) Literacy primers: The Gudschinsky method. Dallas, TX: Summer Institute of Linguistics.Google Scholar
Lehtonen, A.; & Bryant, B. P.
(2005) Active players or just passive bystanders? The role of morphemes in spelling development in a transparent orthography. Applied Psycholinguistics, 26, 137–155. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Lelièvre, R. P.
(1950a) Grammaire du tem [Tem grammar]. Aledjo: Mission Catholique d’Aledjo.Google Scholar
(1950b) Grammaire et dictionnaire tem [Tem grammar and dictionary]. Mission Catholique d’Aledjo.Google Scholar
Levy, B. A.; Abello, B.; & Lysynchuk, L.
(1997) Transfer from word training to reading in context: Gains in reading fluency and comprehension. Learning Difficulties Quarterly, 20, 173–188. . CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Lewis, M. Paul; & Simons, Gary F.
(2010) Assessing endangerment: expanding Fishman’s GIDS. Revue roumaine de linguistique, 55(2), 103–120.Google Scholar
Li, J.; Xu, B.; & Mok, P.
(2014) Effect of orthography on L2 production of Mandarin tones. In C. Gussenhoven, Y. Chen & D. Dediu (Eds.), Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Tonal Aspects of Languages (TAL 2014), 13–16 May 2014, Nijmegen (pp. 147–151). Baixas: International Speech Communication Association (ISCA) Archive.Google Scholar
Li, Wei
(1992) Chinese and English reading miscues of six Chinese graduate students. (PhD dissertation). Colombia, MO: University of Missouri.Google Scholar
Lin, Dan; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Shu, Hua; Zhang, Yuping; Li, Hong; Zhang, Juan, … Levin, Iris
(2010) Small wins big: Analytic Pinyin skills promote Chinese word reading. Psychological Science, 21(8), 1117–1122. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Liu, Rachel
(2013) Tone in Mbelime nouns. Série électronique de documents de travail, no. 1. Lomé: SIL Togo-Bénin. https://​togo​-benin​.sil​.org​/resources​/archives​/54012 (accessed 9 February 2021).
Longacre, Robert E.
(1952) Five phonemic pitch levels in Trique. Acta Linguistica, 7(1–2), 62–82. Published online 2011. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Lucas, Adrienne M.; McEwan, Patrick J.; Ngware, Moses; & Oketch, Moses
(2014) Improving early-grade literacy in East Africa: Experimental evidence from Kenya and Uganda. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 33(4), 950–976. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
López-Escribano, Carmen
(2016) Training reading fluency and comprehension of Spanish children with Dyslexia. In A. Khateb & I. Bar-Kochva (Eds.), Reading fluency: Current insights from neurocognitive research and intervention studies (Vol. 12, pp. 141–161). Cham: Springer.Google Scholar
Lüpke, Friederike
(2011) Orthography development. In P. Austin & J. Sallabank (Eds.), Handbook of endangered languages (pp. 312–336). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Maas, C. J. M.; & Hox, J. J.
(2005) Sufficient sample sizes for multilevel modeling. Methodology, 1(3), 86–92. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Maga, Hubert
(1906) Extrait : rapport sur la contrée Dassa au début de l’époque coloniale [Extract: Report on Dassaland at the beginning of the colonial era]. Dassa-Zoumé: Archives du district rural de Dassa-Zoumé.Google Scholar
Makaure, Z. P.
(2017) Phonological processing and reading development in Norther Sotho – English bilinguals. (MA dissertation). Pretoria: University of South Africa. Google Scholar
Malda, Maike; Nel, Carisma; & Van de Vijver, Fons J. R.
(2014) The road to reading for South African learners: The role of orthographic depth. Learning and Individual Differences, 30, 34–45. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Manessy, Gabriel
(1969) Les langues gurunsi : essai d’application de la méthode comparative à un groupe de langues voltaiques [The Gurunsi languages: An attempt to apply the comparative method to a group of Gur languages]. Paris: SELAF.Google Scholar
(1975) Les langues oti-volta : classification généalogique d’un group de langues voltaïques, volume 15 [The Oti-Volta languages: Genealogical classification of a group of Gur languages, volume 15]. Paris: SELAF.Google Scholar
(1976) Notes sur le niende, langue de l’Atakora [Notes on Niende, a language of the Atakora]. Bulletin de l’IFAN, 38(B4), 861–871.Google Scholar
(1995) Le verbe dans les langues de groupe Tem : essai d’interprétation génétique [The verb in the Tem group of languages: a trial genetic interpretation]. Afrika und Übersee, 49, 237–256.Google Scholar
Martens, V. E. G.; & de Jong, P. F.
(2006) The effect of word length on lexical decision in dyslexic and normal reading children. Brain and Language, 98, 140–149. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
MAS, & SIL
(1981) Livret de lecture Tem [Tem reading booklet]. Lomé: Ministère des Affaires Sociales & SIL.Google Scholar
MAS
(1986) Kʊ́bɔnáa sukúúli wɩlɩɖʊ́ dɛ́ɛ tákaraɖá [Tem literacy guide]. Lomé: Section régionale d’alphabétisation et d’éducation des adultes du Ministère des Affaires Sociales & Comité de langue tem.Google Scholar
McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tong, Xiuli; Shu, Hua; Wong, Anita M.-Y.; Leung, Ka-wai; & Tardif, Twila
(2008) Syllable, phoneme, and tone: Psycholinguistic units in early Chinese and English word recognition. Scientific Studies of Reading, 12(2), 171–194. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
McCardle, Peggy; & Chhabra, Vinita
(2004) The voice of evidence in reading research. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Company.Google Scholar
McCoy, Dana Charles; Zuilkowski, Stephanie Simmons; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; & Fink, Günther
(2017) Early childhood care and education and school readiness in Zambia. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 10(3), 482–506. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
McCutchen, Deborah; & Stull, Sara
(2015) Morphological awareness and children’s writing: Accuracy, error, and invention. Reading and Writing, 28, 271–289. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Meazzini, Paolo
(1985) Reading errors: assessment and behavioural intervention. School Psychology International, 6(1), 34–38. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Mejía, Jessica; & Pouezevara, Sarah
(2011) Using EGRA as a national reading diagnostic: Nicaragua and Senegal. In A. Gove & A. Wetterberg (Eds.), The Early Grade Reading Assessment: Applications and interventions to improve basic literacy (pp. 39–82). Research Triangle Park, NC: RTI Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Melick, Christina
(2012a) The syllable contact law in Mbelime. GIALens, Electronic Notes Series, 6(1), 1–14, https://​www​.diu​.edu​/documents​/gialens​/Vol6​-1​/Melick​_Mbelime​.pdf (accessed 26 January 2021).
(2012b) Tone in the Mbelime verb system. SIL e-Book 47. Dallas, TX: SIL International. https://​togo​-benin​.sil​.org​/resources​/archives​/51670 (accessed 9 February 2021).
MEPN
(2010) Ìwé ɛkɔ́ li èdè ìdàáshà: ǹ ma èdè um kà slú ǹ mà un kɔ [I know how to read and write my language: Idaasha primer]. Cotonou: Ministère de l’Environnement et de la Protection de la Nature et Projet d’Appui à la Gestion des Forêts Communales.Google Scholar
Mercier, Paul
(1949) Vocabulaire de quelques langues du nord-Dahomey [Vocabulary of some languages of northern Dahomey]. Etudes Dahoméennes, 2, 73–83.Google Scholar
Merz, Johannes
(2017) Frictions et inversion de modernité : portrait de la commune de Cobly dans l’Atacora du Bénin [Frictions and inversion of modernity: A portrait of the Commune of Cobly in the Atakora of Benin]. SIL Electronic Working Papers 2017–01. Dallas, TX: SIL International. https://​togo​-benin​.sil​.org​/resources​/archives​/68776 (accessed 9 February 2021).
Merz, Johannes; Merz, Sharon; Sambiéni, N. Bienvenue; Kombetto, N. N. Simon; Sanhouégoua, D. Bernard; & Taouéma, P. K. Philippe
(2017) Guide de l’orthographe mbèlimè suivant la réforme de 2017 [Mbelime orthography guide, following the 2017 reform]. Cotonou & Cobly: SIL Bénin & Commission Nationale Linguistique Mbèlimè. https://​togo​-benin​.sil​.org​/resources​/archives​/72070 (accessed 9 February 2021).
Merz, Sharon; Merz, Johannes; Sambiéni, N. Bienvenue; & Sambiéni, K. Richard
(2005/2013) Guide de l’orthographe du mbèlimè [Mbelime orthography guide]. Cotonou: SIL Bénin. https://​togo​-benin​.sil​.org​/resources​/archives​/52181 (accessed 9 February 2021).
Meyer, M. S.; & Felton, R. H.
(1999) Repeated reading to enhance fluency: Old approaches and new directions. Annals of Dyslexia, 49, 283–306. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Mfonyam, Joseph Ngwa
(1989) Tone in orthography: The case of Bafut and related languages. (Thèse d’état). Yaoundé: University of Yaoundé.Google Scholar
(1990) Tone analysis and tone orthography. Journal of West African Languages, 20(2), 19–30.Google Scholar
Ministry of Education
(1969) Report of the Yorùbá orthography committee. Ibadan: Ministry of Education, Western State of Nigeria.Google Scholar
(1972) Report of the enlarged committee on Yorùbá orthography. In A report on Yorùbá orthography. Ibadan: Ministry of Education, Western State of Nigeria.Google Scholar
Moats, Louisa C.
(2004) Science, language and imagination in the professional development of reading teachers. In P. McCardle & V. Chhabra (Eds.), The voice of evidence in reading research (pp. 269–287). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.Google Scholar
Moretti, Rita; Torre, Paola; Antonello, Rodolfo M.; Fabbro, Franco; Cazzato, Giuseppe; & Bava, Antonio
(2003) Writing errors by normal subjects. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 97(1), 215–229. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Mous, Maarten; & Breedveld, Anneke
(1986) Dialectometrical study of some Bantu languages (A.40-A.60) of Cameroon. In G. Guarisma & W. J. G. Möhlig (Eds.), La méthode dialectométrique appliquée aux langues africaines (pp. 177–241). Berlin: Dietrich Reimer.Google Scholar
Müller, Franz
(1905) Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Tem Sprache (Nord-Togo) [Contribution to the knowledge of the Tem language (North Togo)]. Mitteilungen des Seminars für orientalische Sprachen zu Berlin, 8, 251–286.Google Scholar
Nagler, Telse; Lindberg, Sven; & Hasselhorn, Marcus
(2016) A fact retrieval account of the acceleration phenomenon. In A. Khateb & I. Bar-Kochva (Eds.), Reading fluency: Current insights from neurocognitive research and intervention studies (Vol. 12, pp. 107–123). Cham: Springer.Google Scholar
Neukom, Lukas
(1995) Description grammaticale du naténi (Bénin) : système verbal, classification nominale, phrases complexes, textes [Grammatical description of Nateni (Benin): Verb system, noun classes, complex sentences and texts]. Arbeiten des Seminars für Allgemeine Sprachwissenschaft, 14. Zurich: University of Zurich.Google Scholar
(2003) Forms of clause combining in Nateni. Cahiers voltaïques / Gur Papers, 6, 87–94.Google Scholar
(2004) Esquisse grammaticale du mbèlimè, langue voltaïque du Bénin [A grammatical sketch of Mbelime, a Gur language of Benin]. Arbeiten des Seminars für Allgemeine Sprachwissenschaft 18. Zürich: Universität Zürich.Google Scholar
Nédellec, Brigitte
(2003) La disparition d’un phonème en naténi [The disappearance of a phoneme in Nateni]. Cahiers voltaïques / Gur Papers, 6, 83–86.Google Scholar
Nédellec, Brigitte
(2006) L’expression de la qualification en naténi [Expressing qualification in Nateni]. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe.Google Scholar
Nédellec, Brigitte; & Bukies, Ulrich
(2008) La phonologie du naténi [Nateni phonology]. SIL Electronic Working Papers 2008-005. https://​www​.sil​.org​/resources​/archives​/7887 (accessed 9 February 2021).
Nédellec, Brigitte; & Seifert, Ursula
(2000) Standardisation de l’orthographe en naténi : document de travail [Nateni orthography standardization: Working document]. Cotonou: SIL.Google Scholar
Nguyễn, Đình-Hoà
(1996) Vietnamese. In P. T. Daniels & W. Bright (Eds.), The world’s writing systems (pp. 691–699). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Nikiéma, Norbert; Silué, J. Sassango; Takassi, Issa; Tchagbalé, Zakari; Kassan, Balaïbaou; Mawani, A. Matthieu, … Kedrebéogo, Gérard
(2005) Orthographe standard et harmonisée des langues gur [Standard harmonised orthography of Gur languages] (Vol. 44). Cape Town, RSA: Centre for Advanced Studies of African Society.Google Scholar
Nunn, Anneke; & Neijt, Anneke
(2006) The recent history of Dutch orthography (II). Leuvense Bijdragen – Leuven Contributions in Linguistics and Philology, 95, 117–157. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
N’sera, Lambert
(2015) Rapport d’activités de Ti Toua : projet d’appui à l’autonomisation des communautés à travers l’alphabétisation fonctionnelle et au développement des activités génératrices de revenus des femmes [Ti Toua activity report: A project supporting community empowerment through functional literacy and the development of women’s incoming generating activities]. Tanguiéta: Ti Toua & Jura-Afrique.Google Scholar
Obiono, Jean; Angéine, Bagoña; & Bebiyeme, Raymond
(2009) Nsɛ dianɔna diɔŋɔ numála [Primer 1 in the Mmala language]. Yaoundé: Comité de langue numala (COLANUM) & SIL Cameroon.Google Scholar
Ogino, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Hanafusa, Kaoru; Watanabe, Kiyoko; Morooka, Teruko; Takeuchi, Akihito; Oka, Makio; Sanada, Satoshi; Ohtuska, Yoko
(2011) Reading skills of Japanese second-graders. Pediatrics International, 53(3), 309–314. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Ogunbiyi, Isaac Adejoju
(2003) The search for a Yoruba orthography since the 1840s: Obstacles to the choice of the Arabic script. Sudanic Africa, 14, 77–102.Google Scholar
Ogunbọwale, P. O.
(1970) The essentials of the Yoruba language. London: Hodder & Stoughton.Google Scholar
Okoumassoun, Eugène
(1994) Syllabaire Ìdàáshà [Idaasha primer]. Dassa-Zoumé: Direction de l’alphabétisation du Ministère de la Culture et des Communications, SIL & Coopération Suisse.Google Scholar
Okoumassoun, Eugène; Kouyomou, Odoun Dieudonné; & Wiesemann, Ursula
(1994) Orthographe de la langue idàáshà [Orthography of the Idaasha language]. Cotonou: Centre National de Linguistique Appliquée.Google Scholar
Olson, Kenneth
(2020) Vers une orthographe appropriée du ton pour le mbèlimè [Towards an appropriate tone orthography for Mbelime]. Série électronique de documents de travail no 7. Lomé: SIL Togo-Bénin. https://​togo​-benin​.sil​.org​/resources​/archives​/84845 (accessed 9 February 2020).
Olsson, Bruno
(2013) Iamatives: Perfects in Southeast Asia and beyond. (Masters thesis). Stockholm: University of Stockholm.Google Scholar
Olúnládé, Táíwò
(2016) Media: Journalism. In T. Falola & A. Akinyemi (Eds.), Encyclopedia of the Yoruba (pp. 221–223). Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
Olúmúyìwá, Tèmítọ́pẹ
(2013) Yoruba writing: Standards and trends. Journal of Arts and Humanities, 2(1), 40–51.Google Scholar
Onana, Nkoa; & Roland, Jean
(2007) Morphologie verbale du nulibie [Nulibie verbal morphology]. (MA thesis). Yaoundé: University of Yaoundé. Google Scholar
Onsomu, Eldah; Nzomo, Juliana; & Obiero, Charles
(2005) The SACMEQ II project in Kenya: A study of the conditions of schooling and the quality of education. Kenya: Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology.Google Scholar
Ouro-Djobo, Abby Alphah Mama F.
(1978) Erstellung eines Korpus von dreissig Märchen in Tem (Zentral Togo) mit phonetischer Transkription, Interlinearversion und freier Übersetzung [Creation of a corpus of thirty fairy tales in Tem (Central Togo) with phonetic transcription, interlinear version and free translation] (Masters dissertation). Saarbrücken: Universität des Saarlandes.Google Scholar
Ouyang, Chuoying Iris; & Kaiser, Elsi
(2015) Prosody and information structure in a tone language: an investigation of Mandarin Chinese. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience, 30(1–2) (Special Issue: Prosody in Context), 57–72. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Oyelaran, Olasope Oyediji
(1971) Yoruba phonology. (PhD dissertation). Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University.Google Scholar
Ògúndèjì, Philip Adédọ̀tun
(2016) Orality and literacy. In T. Falola & A. Akinyemi (Eds.), Encyclopedia of the Yoruba (pp. 256–257). Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
Ọdúnjọ, Joseph Fọláhàn
(2001) Aláwìíyé: Ìwé kẹtà [One who explains, vol. 3] 4th edition. Lagos: Longman Nigeria.Google Scholar
(2008a) Aláwìíyé: Ìwé kejì [One who explains, vol. 2] 4th edition. Lagos: Longman Nigeria.Google Scholar
(2008b) Aláwìíyé: Ìwé kìn-ín-ní [One who explains, vol. 1] 4th edition. Lagos: Longman Nigeria.Google Scholar
Park, Kwonsaeng; & Vaid, Jyotsna
(1995) Lexical representation of script variation: evidence from Korean biscriptals. In I. Taylor & D. R. Olson (Eds.), Scripts and literacy (pp. 327–339). Amsterdam: Kluwer Academic. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Parrinder, Edward Geoffrey
(1947) Yoruba-speaking people in Dahomey. Africa, 17(2), 122–129. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Paterson III, Hugh J.
(2015) Phonetic transcription of tone in the IPA. In M. Wolters, J. Livingstone, B. Beattie, R. Smith, M. MacMahon, J. Stuart-Smith & J. Scobbie (Eds.), Proceedings of the 18th International Conference of Phonetic Sciences, paper number 507, pp. 1–5. Glasgow: University of Glasgow.
Paulian, Christiane
(1980) Les classes nominales dans les parlers yambassa [Noun classes in the Yambassa speech varieties]. LACITO-informations, Bull. liaison (CNRS), 11, 63–66.Google Scholar
(1986b) Les parlers yambasa du Cameroun (Bantou A.62) (dialectométrie lexicale) [The Yambasa speech varieties of Cameroon (Bantu A.62) (lexical dialectometry)]. In G. Guarisma & W. J. G. Möhlig (Eds.), La méthode dialectométrique appliquée aux langues africaines (pp. 243–279). Berlin: Dietrich Reimer.Google Scholar
Peereman, R.
(1995) Naming regular and exception words: further examintion of the effect of phonological dissension among lexical neighbours. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 6, 307–330. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Perfetti, Charles A.
(1985) Reading ability. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Pierce, J. E.
(1960) A frequency count of Turkish words: A report of a study by the staff of the Georgetown University Language Program Ankara, Turkey, under the chairmanship of Joe E. Pierce. Ankara, Turkey: Ministry of Education, Directorate of Publications, Printed Education Materials Development Center.Google Scholar
Pikulski, John J.; & Chard, David J.
(2005) Fluency: Bridge between decoding and reading comprehension. The Reading Teacher, 58, 510–519. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Pinnell, G. S.; Pikulski, J. J.; Wixson, K. K.; Campbell, J. R.; Gough, P. B.; & Beatty, A. S.
(1995) Listening to children read aloud: Data from NAEP’s integrated reading performance record (IRPR) at grade 4. Washington, DC: Office of Educational Research and Improvement, US Department of Education.Google Scholar
(1995) Listening to children read aloud. Washington, DC: Office of Educational Research and Improvement, US Department of Education.Google Scholar
Piper, Benjamin; & Miksic, E.
(2011) Mother tongue and reading: Using early grade reading assessments to investigate language-of-instruction policy in East Africa. In A. Gove & A. Wetterberg (Eds.), The Early Grade Reading Assessment: Applications and interventions to improve basic literacy (pp. 139–182). Research Triangle Park, NC: RTI Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Piper, Benjamin; & Zuilkowski, Stephanie Simmons
(2015a) Assessing reading fluency in Kenya: Oral or silent assessment? International Review of Education, 61 (2), 153–171. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2015b) The role of timing in assessing oral reading fluency and comprehension in Kenya. Language Testing, 33(1), 75–98. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Piper, Benjamin; Jepkemei, Evelyn; & Kibukho, Kennedy
(2015) Pro-poor PRIMR: improving early literacy skills for children from low-income families in Kenya. Africa Education Review, 12(1), 67–87. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Piper, Benjamin; Schroeder, Leila; & Trudell, Barbara
(2016) Oral reading fluency and comprehension in Kenya: Reading acquisition in a multilingual environment. Journal of Research in Reading, 39(2), 133–152. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Piron, Pascale
(1995) Identification lexicostatistique des groupes bantoïde stables [Lexicostatistical identification of stable Bantoid groups]. Journal of West African Languages, 25(2), 3–30.Google Scholar
(1997) Classification interne du group bantoïde, vol. 2 [Internal classification of the Bantoid group]. Lincom Studies in African Linguistics (Vol. 12). Newcastle: Lincom Europa.Google Scholar
Plunkett, Gray
(2009) An overview of Foodo, a linguistic island in Benin. Journal of West African Languages, 36(1–2), 107–137.Google Scholar
Pressley, Michael; Gaskins, Irene W.; & Fingeret, Lauren
(2006) Instruction and development of reading fluency in struggling readers. In S. J. Samuels & A. E. Farstrup (Eds.), What research has to say about fluency instruction (pp. 47–69). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.Google Scholar
Price, Katherine W.; Meisinger, Elizabeth B.; Louwerse, Max M.; & D’Mello, Sidney
(2016) The contributions of oral and silent reading fluency to reading comprehension. Reading Psychology, 37(2), 167–201. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Prost, André
(1972) Les langues de l’atakora 2 : le tayari [The languages of the Atakora 2: Tayari]. Bulletin de l’IFAN, 34(B2), 617–682.Google Scholar
Przezdziecki, Marek A.
(2005) Vowel harmony and coarticulation in three dialects of Yoruba: Phonetics determining phonology. (PhD dissertation). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University.Google Scholar
Pulleyblank, Douglas
(1986) Tone in lexical phonology. Dordrecht: Reidel. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(1988) Vocalic underspecification in Yoruba. Linguistic Inquiry, 19, 233–270.Google Scholar
Rage-Hesketh, Sophia; & Skrondal, Anders
(2008) Multilevel and longitudinal modeling using Stata, 2nd edition. College Station, TX: Stata Press.Google Scholar
Ralaingita, Wendi; & Wetterberg, Anna
(2011) Gauging program effectiveness with EGRA: Impact evaluations in South Africa and Mali. In A. Gove & A. Wetterberg (Eds.), The Early Grade Reading Assessment: Applications and interventions to improve basic literacy (pp. 83–113). Research Triangle Park, NC: RTI Press. . CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Rasinski, Timothy V.
(2006) A brief history of reading fluency. In S. J. Samuels & A. E. Farstrup (Eds.), What research has to say about fluency instruction (pp. 4–23). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.Google Scholar
Rasinski, Timothy V.; & Samuels, S. Jay
(2011) Reading fluency: What it is and what it is not. In S. J. Samuels & A. E. Farstrup (Eds.), What research has to say about reading instruction, 4th edition (pp. 94–114). Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Google Scholar
Rasinski, Timothy V.; Paige, David; & Nageldinger, James
(2015) Reading fluency: Neglected, misunderstood, but still critical for proficient reading. In P. D. Pearson & E. H. Hiebert (Eds.), Research-based practices for teaching common core literacy (pp. 143–160). New York & London: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
Reeder, JeDene
(2013) Evaluating the effectiveness of literacy programs: Social representations in two Togolese groups. Paper presented at the 8th Pan-African Reading for All Conference, Nairobi, Kenya.
(2017) Leadership in literacy: Capacity building and the Ifè program. Dallas, TX: SIL International.Google Scholar
Rees, S. A.
(2016) Morphological awareness in readers of isiXhosa. (MA dissertation). Grahamstown: Rhodes University.Google Scholar
Reineke, Brigitte
(1983) Esquisse grammaticale de la langue naténi [A grammatical sketch of Nateni]. Berlin: Humboldt Universität.Google Scholar
(1985) Phonologie du naténi [Nateni phonology]. Berlin: Humboldt Universität.Google Scholar
(1987) A propos de quelques traits caractéristiques de la structure grammaticale des langues voltaïques : le cas du naténi [On some characteristic traits of Gur language structure: The case of Nateni] Cahiers d’études linguistiques, 2, 3–14.Google Scholar
(1995) Derivative Verbformen und serielle Verbkonstruktionen in Gursprachen [Derived verb forms and serial verb constructions in Gur languages]. Afrika und Übersee, 78, 55–72.Google Scholar
(1998) Des constructions relatives dans les langues de l’Atakora [Relative constructions in the languages of the Atakora]. Cahiers voltaïques / Gur Papers, 3, 95–106.Google Scholar
(2012) Mbɛlimɛ. In G. Miehe, B. Reineke & K. Winkelmann (Eds.), Noun class systems in Gur languages, volume 2: North Central Gur languages (Vol. Gur Monographs / Monographes voltaïques 11, pp. 151–177). Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe.Google Scholar
(2012) Nateni. In G. Miehe, B. Reineke & K. Winkelmann (Eds.), Noun class systems in Gur languages, volume 2 : North Central Gur languages (Vol. Gur Monographs / Monographes voltaïques 11, pp. 178–215). Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe.Google Scholar
Rialland, Annie
(2007) Question prosody: An African perspective. In C. Gussenhoven & R. T. (Eds.), Tones and tunes: Volume 1: Typological studies in word and sentence prosody (pp. 35–62). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Rietkerk, Dieke
(2000) Tone on Mbelime verbs. Cahiers voltaïques / Gur Papers, 5, 141–147.Google Scholar
Risse, Sarah
(2014) Effects of visual span on reading speed and parafoveal processing in eye movements during sentence reading. Journal of Vision, 14(8), 11, 11–13. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Roberts, David
(2008) Thirty years of tone orthography testing in West African languages (1977 – 2007). Journal of West African Languages, 35(1–2), 199–242.Google Scholar
(2008) L’orthographe du ton en kabiyè au banc d’essai [Kabiye tone orthography on the testing bench]. (Thèse de doctorat). Paris: INALCO.Google Scholar
(2009) Visual crowding and the tone orthography of African languages. Written Language & Literacy, 12(1), 140–155. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2010) Hidden morpheme boundaries in Kabiye: A source of miscues in a toneless orthography. Writing Systems Research, 2(2), 139–153. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2011) Autosegmental and pedagogical considerations in preparation for a tone orthography experiment. Journal of West African Languages, 38(2), 87–106.Google Scholar
(2013) A tone orthography typology. In S. R. Borgwaldt & T. Joyce (Eds.), Typology of writing systems (pp. 85–111). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2016) Word tone and tonal overwriting in Kabiye nouns. Journal of African Languages and Linguistics, 37(1), 131–160. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2020a) La contribution de la graphie tonale de l’idaasha à la fluidité de la lecture orale : une expérience en alphabétisation au Bénin [The contribution of the Idaasha tone orthography to oral reading fluency: A literacy experiment in Benin]. Série électronique de documents de travail, no 12. Lomé: SIL Togo-Bénin. https://​togo​-benin​.sil​.org​/resources​/archives​/86507 (accessed 27 January 2021).
(2020b) La contribution de la graphie tonale de l’ifè à la fluidité de la lecture orale : une expérience en alphabétisation au Togo [The contribution of the Ife tone orthography to oral reading fluency: A literacy experiment in Togo]. Série électronique de documents de travail no 13. Lomé: SIL Togo-Bénin. https://​togo​-benin​.sil​.org​/resources​/archives​/86524 (accessed 27 January 2021).
(2020c) La contribution de la graphie tonale du mbèlimè à la fluidité de la lecture orale : une expérience en alphabétisation au Bénin. [The contribution of the Mbelime tone orthography to oral reading fluency: A literacy experiment in Benin]. Série électronique de documents de travail, no 10. Lomé: SIL Togo-Bénin. https://​togo​-benin​.sil​.org​/resources​/archives​/86497 (accessed 27 January 2021).
(2020d) La contribution de la graphie tonale du naténi à la fluidité de la lecture orale : une expérience en alphabétisation au Bénin [The contribution of the Nateni tone orthography to oral reading fluency: a literacy experiment in Benin]. Série électronique de documents de travail no 11. Lomé: SIL Togo-Bénin. https://​togo​-benin​.sil​.org​/resources​/archives​/86494 (accessed 27 January 2021).
(2020e) La contribution de la graphie tonale du tem à la fluidité de la lecture orale : une expérience en alphabétisation au Togo [The contribution of the Tem tone orthography to oral reading fluency: A literacy experiment in Togo]. Série électronique de documents de travail no 9. Lomé: SIL Togo-Bénin. https://​togo​-benin​.sil​.org​/resources​/archives​/86495 (accessed 27 January 2021).
Roberts, David; & Boyd, Ginger
(2018) La contribution de la graphie tonale à la fluidité de la lecture orale : les cas de l’elip, du mmala et du yangben au Cameroun [The contribution of the tone orthography to oral reading fluency: The cases of Elip, Mmala, and Yangben in Cameroon]. Unpublished manuscript. Yaoundé: SIL Cameroon.Google Scholar
Roberts, David; & Vydrin, Valentin
(2019) Tonal oral reading errors in the orthography of Eastern Dan (Côte d’Ivoire). Nordic Journal of African Studies, 28(1), 1–28.Google Scholar
Roberts, David; & Walter, Stephen L.
(2012) Writing grammar rather than tone: An orthography experiment in Togo. Written Language & Literacy, 15(2), 226–253. . CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2016) Writing morphophonology, reading lexical tone: Quantitative evidence in favor of morphographic spelling in Kabiye (Togo). Writing Systems Research, 8(2), 167–186. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2019) The impact of linguistic and literacy variables on reading and writing tone in ten Niger-Congo languages. Paper presented at the International Workshop on Literacy and Writing systems: Cultural, Neuropsychological, and Psycholinguistic Perspectives, 18–21 February 2019, University of Haifa, Israel.
Roberts, David; Basnight-Brown, Dana; & Vydrin, Valentin
(2019) Marking tone with punctuation: An orthography experiment in Eastern Dan. In Y. Haralambous (Ed.), Proceedings of the conference “Grafematik: Graphemics in the 21st century from graphemes to knowledge” (pp. 315–349). Brest, France: Fluxus. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Roberts, David; Boyd, Ginger; Merz, Johannes; & Vydrin, Valentin
(2020) Quantifying written ambiguities in tone languages: A comparative study of Elip, Mbelime and Eastern Dan. Language Documentation and Conservation, 14, 108–138.Google Scholar
Roberts, David; Harley, Matthew; & Walter, Stephen L.
(2019) The contribution of full tone marking to fluency and comprehension in Yoruba and Ife. Paper presented at the 12th International Workshop of the Association for Written Language and Literacy, University of Cambridge, UK.
Roberts, David; Snider, Keith; & Walter, Stephen L.
(2016) Neither deep nor shallow: Testing the optimal orthographic depth for the representation of tone in Kabiye (Togo). Language and Speech, 59(1), 113–138. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Robson, Karen; & Pevalin, David
(2016) Multilevel modeling in plain language. Los Angeles, CA: Sage. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Rogers, Alan; & Street, Brian
(2012) Adult literacy and development: Stories from the field. Leicester: National Institute of Adult Continuing Education.Google Scholar
Rowbory, David
(2008) Ede Idaasha and Yoruba: A brief study in language change due to migration and independent development. Special Topics in Translation Studies, TS720, 1–9.Google Scholar
Rowlands, E. C.
(1969) Teach yourself Yoruba. London: The English Universities Press Ltd.Google Scholar
Roy-Campbell, Zaline M.
(2003) Promoting African languages as conveyors of knowledge in educational institutions. In S. Makoni (Ed.), Black linguistics: language, society, and politics in Africa and the Americas (pp. 83–102). London & New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Rupp, James E.; & Rupp, Nadine
(1996) Diccionario chinanteco de San Juan Lealao Oaxaca [San Juan Lealao Oaxaca Chinantec dictionary] (Vol. 7). Tucson, AZ: SIL.Google Scholar
Rønneberg, Vibeke; & Torrance, Mark
(2019) Cognitive predictors of shallow-orthography spelling speed and accuracy in 6th grade children. Reading and Writing, 32, 197–216. Crossref
Sama, Aboubakari
(2001) L’énoncé tem [The Tem utterance]. (Mémoire de maîtrise). Lomé: Université de Lomé.Google Scholar
(2004) Etude comparative des systèmes consonantiques des langues du gurunsi oriental [A comparative study of consonantal systems in the eastern Gurunsi languages]. (Mémoire de DEA). Lomé: Université de Lomé. Google Scholar
Sambiéni, Coffi
(2005) Le proto-oti-volta-oriental : essai d’application de la méthode historique comparative [Proto-Eastern-Oti-Volta: A trial application of the historical comparative method]. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe. Google Scholar
(2013) Composition nominale dans les langues gur Oti-Volta-Orientales [Nominal composition in the Eastern Oti-Volta Gur languages]. Journal of West African Languages, 40(1), 37–53.Google Scholar
Sambiéni, N. Bienvenue; Merz, Johannes; & Merz, Sharon
(2004–2019) Dictionnaire mbèlimè en ligne [Mbelime on-line dictionary]. Dallas, TX: SIL International. https://​www​.webonary​.org​/mbelime/ (accessed 26 January 2021).
Sambiéni, N. Bienvenue; Merz, Sharon; & Merz, Johannes
(2012) Livret de vocabulaire français-mbèlimèKɛ̄ pɔkɛ hɛ̰tíkɛ ā nɔ̄buodɛ m̄ pīemɛ nnɛ m̄ bɛ̄dímɛ [French-Mbelime vocabulary booklet]. Cotonou: SIL Bénin. https://​togo​-benin​.sil​.org​/resources​/archives​/53669 (accessed 9 February 2021).
Sampa, Francis K.
(2005) Zambia’s primary reading program (PRP): Improving access and quality education in basic schools. Paris: Association for the Development of Education in Africa. Google Scholar
Samuels, S. Jay; Rasinski, Timothy V.; & Hiebert, Elfrieda H.
(2011) Eye movements and reading: What teachers need to know. In S. J. Samuels & A. E. Farstrup (Eds.), What research has to say about reading instruction, 4th edition (pp. 25–50). Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Google Scholar
Sanhouégoua, Dicato Bernard; Kombiéni, N’tcha Nestor; & Kolani, Adamou
(2016) Apprendre à lire et à écrire le mbèlimè : guide pratique de transition français-mbèlimè pour les scolarisés [Learn to read and writing Mbelime: A practical French-Mbelime transition guide for those who have been to school]. Tanguiéta: Association des Alphabétiseurs en Langues de Cobly & SIL Bénin. Google Scholar
Satre, Scott A.; & Boyd, Ginger
(2015) Ébauche de la grammaire de base du nulibie [Draft of Nulibie basic grammar]. Yaoundé: Ministère de la Recherche Scientifique et de l’Innovation & CABTAL. Google Scholar
Sauder, Doris; & Wright, Paul
(2000) Krahn-English dictionary, English-Krahn (Tchien dialect), preliminary edition. Mississauga, Canada: Publisher unknown. Google Scholar
Schall, Megan; Skinner, Christopher H.; Cazzell, Samantha; Ciancio, Dennis; Ruddy, Jonah; & Thompson, Kelly
(2016) Extending research on oral reading fluency measures, reading speed, and comprehension. Contemporary School Psychology, 20(3), 262–269. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Schimmel, Naomi; & Ness, Molly
(2017) The effects of oral and silent reading on reading comprehension. Reading Psychology, 38(4), 390–416. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Schreiber, P. A.
(1980) On the acquisition of reading fluency. Journal of Reading Behavior, 7(3), 177–186. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(1991) Understanding prosody’s role in reading acquisition. Theory into Practice, 30(3), 158–164. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Seidl, Amanda
(2000) Yoruba vowel elision and compounding. University of Pennsyvania Working Papers in Linguistics, 6(3), 279–297.Google Scholar
Seymour, P. H. K.
(2005) Early reading development in European orthographies. In M. J. Snowling & C. Hulme (Eds.), The science of reading: A handbook (pp. 296–315). Oxford: Blackwell. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Seymour, P. H. K.; Aro, M.; & Erskine, J. M.
(2003) Foundation literacy acquisition in European orthographies. British Journal of Psychology, 94, 143–174. . CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Share, David
(2008) On the anglocentricities of current reading research and practice: The perils of overreliance on an “outlier” orthography. Psychological Bulletin, 134(4), 584–615. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
in press). Is the science of reading just the science of reading English? Reading Research Quarterly.
Shi, F.; Shi, L.; & Liao, R. R.
(1987) An experimental analysis of the five level tones of the Gaoba Dong language. Journal of Chinese Linguistics, 15(2), 335–361. Google Scholar
Shu, Hua; Peng, Hong; & McBride-Chang, Catherine
(2008) Phonological awareness in young Chinese children. Developmental Science, 11(1), 171–181. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Sifuna, Daniel N.
(2007) The challenge of increasing access and improving quality: an analysis of universal primary education interventions in Kenya and Tanzania since the 1970s. International Review of Education, 53(5–6), 687–699. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
SIL
(1995) Gbálé-ɛ̀ɛ tã́ná o gbá ɔ̀nà : cours de lecture ifè, 2e édition [Ife reading course, 2nd edition]. Atakpamé: SIL-Togo. Google Scholar
Simpson, Ekundayo
(1985) Translating in the Nigerian mass media: A sociolinguistic study. In F. O. Ugboajah (Ed.), Mass communication, culture and society in West Africa (pp. 133–152). Oxford: Hans Zell. Google Scholar
Siok, W. T.; & Fletcher, P.
(2001) The role of phonological awareness and visual-orthographic skills in Chinese reading acquisition. Development Psychology, 37, 886–899. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
SLI
(2001) Orthographe de la langue idaasha [Orthography of the Idaasha language]. Dassa-Zoumé, Bénin: Souscommission Lingustique Idaasha. Google Scholar
SLM
(1981) Travaux du séminaire tenu du 19 au 25 janvier 1981 à Cobly [Outcomes from the workshop held on 19–25 January 1981 in Cobly]. Cobly: Sous-commission de Linguistique M’Bèrimè.Google Scholar
Snider, Keith L.
(1999) The geometry and features of tone. Dallas: SIL & University of Texas at Arlington.Google Scholar
Snider, Keith
(2014) Orthography and phonological depth. In M. Cahill & K. Rice (Eds.), Developing orthographies for unwritten languages (pp. 27–48). Dallas, TX: SIL International. Google Scholar
(2018) Tone analysis for field linguists. Dallas, TX: SIL International. Google Scholar
Snow, C.
(2002) Reading for understanding: Toward an R&D program in reading comprehension, Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.Google Scholar
SOTOCO
(1974) Yɔɔtɩ farɩm Togo nda [Cotton farming in Togo]. Sokodé: SOTOCO.Google Scholar
Spaull, Nicholas; Pretorius, Elizabeth; & Mohohlwane, Nompumelelo
(2020) Investigating the comprehension iceberg: Developing empirical benchmarks for early grade reading in agglutinating African languages. South African Journal of Childhood Education, 10(1), 1–14. Crossref
SPAPR-Zou
n.d.). Progression à suivre pour l’enseignement de la langue : Idaca, Ife, Ica (Guide d’enseignement pour alphabétiseur) [Procedure to follow for teaching the language: Idaasha, Ife, Ica (Teachers’ guide)]. Place and publisher unknown.
Stahl, Steven A.
(2004) What do we know about fluency? Findings of the National Reading Panel. In P. McCardle & V. Chhabra (Eds.), The voice of evidence in reading research (pp. 187–211). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes. Google Scholar
Steenbeek-Plantinga, Esther G.; van Bona, Wim H. J.; & Schreuder, Robert
(2013) Instability of children’s reading errors in bisyllabic words: The role of context-sensitive spelling rules. Learning and Instruction, 26, 59–70. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Stone, Deborah B.; Fisher, Sylvia K.; & Eliot, John
(1999) Adults’ prior exposure to print as a predictor of the legibility of text on paper and laptop computer. Reading and Writing, 11(1), 1–28. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Tambulukani, Geofrey; & Bus, Adriana G.
(2012) Linguistic diversity: A contributory factor to reading problems in Zambian schools. Applied Linguistics, 33(2), 141–160. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Taylor, C. D.; Meisinger, Elizabeth B.; & Floyd, Randy G.
(2013) Variations in directions and overt timing on oral reading accuracy, fluency, and prosody. School Psychology Review, 42(4), 437–447. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Tchadouwa, Colibou
(1996) Contribution of borrowing to Tem vocabulary: The case of English borrowed words. (Mémoire de maîtrise). Lomé: Université de Lomé.Google Scholar
Tchagbalé, Zakari
(1998) Le verbe tem [The Tem verb]. Cahiers voltaïques / Gur Papers, 3, 129–142. Google Scholar
(2000) L’infinitif tem, statut et structure [The Tem infinitive: status and structure]. Cahiers voltaïques / Gur Papers, 5, 169–180. Google Scholar
(2001) L’accent tonal du tem [Tem pitch accent]. Proceedings of the Typology of African prosodic systems colloquium, University of Bielefeld, Germany, May 18–20, 2001. Publisher unspecified. Google Scholar
(2003) Les relateurs à consonne ‘n’ : parenté génétique, transcatégorialité et problématique de la coordination en tem [Relators containing the consonant ‘n’: Genetic kinship, transcategoriality and coordination issues in Tem] Cahiers voltaïques / Gur Papers, 6, 143–159.Google Scholar
(2006) Topicalisation et focalisation en tem [Topicalistion and focalisation in Tem]. Cahiers voltaïques / Gur Papers, 7, 122–135. Google Scholar
Tchagbalé, Zakari
(1972) Les catégories grammaticales du tem [Tem grammatical categories]. (Mémoire de maîtrise). Paris: Université de la Sorbonne Nouvelle, Paris III. Google Scholar
(1976) Phonologie et tonologie du Tem [Tem phonology and tonology]. (Thèse de doctorat de troisième cycle). Paris: Université de la Sorbonne Nouvelle, Paris III. Google Scholar
Tchegnon, Philippe; & Guidibi, M. Emmanuel
(2006) Monographie de la Commune de Cobly [Monograph of the Commune of Cobly]. Place unknown: Mission de décentralisation, Programme d’Appui au Demarrage des Communes: Afrique Conseil http://​www​.ancb​-benin​.org​/pdc​-sdac​-monographies​/monographies​_communales​/Monographie%20de%20Cobly​.pdf (accessed 26 January 2021).
Thomas, Paule
(1978) Alphabétisation en yacouba [Literacy in Yacouba]. Abidjan: Institut de Linguistique Appliquée. Google Scholar
Tiémoko, Sébastien Baba; Tiémoko, Jacob Déli; Bolli, Margrit; & Flik, Eva
(1982/1994) ꞊Danwʋ ʹsëëdhɛ ‑wʋ pö ‑kɔ ʺgwɛɛtaawʋ [Dan-Gwèta primer]. Abidjan: SIL. Google Scholar
Todegnon, Toussaint
(2011) Migration au Bénin : profil national 2011 [Migration in Benin: 2011 national profile]. Dakar-Fann and Paris: GIP International http://​publications​.iom​.int​/system​/files​/pdf​/profil​_migratoire​_benin​.pdf (accessed 9 February 2021).
Tong, Xiuli; He, Xinjie; & Deacon, S. Hélène
(2017) Tone matters for Cantonese-English bilingual children’s English word reading development: A unified model of phonological transfer. Memory and Cognition, 45(2), 320–333. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Tong, Xiuli; Tong, Xiu hong; & McBride-Chang, Catherine
(2015) A tale of two writing systems: Double dissociation and metalinguistic transfer between Chinese and English word reading among Hong Kong children. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 48(2), 130–145. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Torgesen, Joseph K.; & Hudson, Roxanne F.
(2006) Reading fluency: Critical issues for struggling readers. In S. J. Samuels & A. E. Farstrup (Eds.), What research has to say about fluency instruction (pp. 130–158). Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Google Scholar
Tossou, Marguerite
(1973) Les proverbes idatcha : éléments de comparaison avec les proverbes français [Idaasha proverbs: Element of comparison with French proverbs]. (Mémoire de maîtrise). Paris: Université de la Sorbonne Nouvelle, Paris III. Google Scholar
Trauzettel-Klosinski, Susanne; & Klaus, Dietz
(2012) Standardized assessment of reading performance: The new international reading speed texts IReST. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 53, 5452–5461. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Tsai, Li-Hui; Meng, Ling-Fu; Hung, Li-Yu; Chena, Hsin-Yu; & Lua, Chiu-Ping
(2011) Coincidence of homophone spelling errors and attention problems in schoolchildren: A survey study. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32(1), 75–80. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
UNDESA
(2019) World population prospects. New York: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. https://​population​.un​.org​/wpp/ (accessed 26 January 2021).
Valle-Arroyo, F.
(1989) Reading errors in Spanish. In P. G. Aaron & R. M. Joshi (Eds.), Reading and writing disorders in different orthographic systems (pp. 163–175). Dordecht: Kluwer Academic. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Van Dyken, Julia R.; & Kutsch Lojenga, Constance
(1993) Word boundaries: Key factors in orthography development. In R. L. Hartell (Ed.), Alphabets of Africa (pp. 3–20). Dakar: UNESCO & SIL. Google Scholar
Van Staden, A.
(2016) Reading in a second language: Considering the “simple view of reading” as a foundation to support ESL readers in Lesotho, Southern Africa. Per Linguam: A Journal of Language Learning, 32(2), 21–40. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Veber Nielson, Anne-Mette
(2016) Boosting orthographic learning during independent reading. Reading Research Quarterly, 51(3), 305–322. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Veenendaal, Nathalie J.; Groen, Margriet A.; & Verhoeven, Ludo
(2015) What oral text reading fluency can reveal about reading comprehension. Journal of Research in Reading, 38(3), 213–225. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Veii, K.; & Everatt, J.
(2005) Predictors of reading among Herero-English bilingual Nambian school children. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 8(3), 239–254. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Vella, Jane
(2002) Learning to listen, learning to teach: The power of dialogue in educating adults. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Google Scholar
Verhoeven, L.; & Van Leeuwe, J.
(2008) Prediction of the development of reading comprehension: A longitudinal study. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 22, 407–423. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Vitrano-Wilson, Seth
(2016) Reading syllable-spaced versus word-spaced text in Hmong Daw: Breaking up isn’t so hard to do. Writing Systems Research, 8(2), 234–256. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Vydrin, Valentin
(2009a) Areal features in South Mande and Kru languages. In N. Cyffer & G. Ziegelmeyer (Eds.), When languages meet: Language contact and change in West Africa (pp. 91–116). Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe. Google Scholar
(2009b) On the problem of the Proto-Mande homeland. Journal of Language Relationship (Вопросы языкового родства), 1, 107–142. Google Scholar
(2010) Co-ordinative pronouns in Southern and South-Western Mande: A second compound pronouns area in Africa? In K. Pozdniakov, V. Vydrin & A. Zheltov (Eds.), Personal pronouns in Niger-Congo languages: International workshop. St. Petersburg, September 13–15, 2010. Abstracts and papers: Working materials (pp. 164–172). St. Petersburg: St. Petersburg University Press. Google Scholar
(2011) Déclinaison nominale en dan-gwèètaa (groupe mandé-sud, Côte-d’Ivoire) [Nominal declination in Dan-Gwèta (Southern Mande group, Côte d’Ivoire)]. Faits de langues, 3, 233–258. Paris: Ophrys. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2012) Aspektual’nyje sistemy juzhnykh mande v diakhronicheskoj perspektive (Аспектуальные системы южных манде в диахронической перспективе) [Aspectual systems of Southern Mande languages in a diachronic perspective]. In V. Plungian (Ed.), Issledovanija po teorii grammatiki. Vypusk 6: Tipologija aspektual’nykh sistem i kategorij (Исследования по теории грамматики. Выпуск 6: Типология аспектуальных систем и категорий) [Studies in the theory of grammar. Iss. 6: Typology of aspectual systems and categories] (Acta Linguistica Petropolitana. Trudy Instituta lingvisticheskikh issledovanij (ACTA LINGUISTICA PETROPOLITANA. Труды Института лингвистических исследований РАН) [ACTA LINGUISTICA PETROPOLITANA. Transactions of the Institute for Linguistic Studies] 8(2) 566–647. St. Petersburg: Nauka. Google Scholar
(2013) Soglasovanije mestoimennogo predikativnogo pokazatel’a s podlezhashchim v dan-gweta (Согласование местоименного предикативного показателя с подлежащим в дан-гуэта) [Agreement of the pronominal predicative marker with the subject in Dan-Gwèta]. In A. Zheltov (Ed.), Afrikanskij Sbornik – 2013 (Африканский Сборник – 2013) [African Collection – 2013] (pp. 263–285). St. Petersburg: Muzej antropologii i etnografii RAN (Kunstkamera).Google Scholar
(2016) Tonal inflection in Mande languages: The cases of Bamana and Dan-Gwɛɛtaa. In E. L. Palancar & J. L. Léonard (Eds.), Tone and inflection: New facts and new perspectives. Trends in linguistics studies and monographs. Vol. 296 (pp. 83–105). Berlin: De Gruyter – Mouton. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2017a) Dan jazyk (Дан язык) [Dan]. In V. Vydrine, Y. Mazurova, A. Kibrik & E. Markus (Eds.), Jazyki mira: Jazyki mande (Языки мира: Языки манде) [Languages of the world: Mande languages] (pp. 469–583). St. Petersburg: Nestor-Historia. Google Scholar
(2017b) Quantifiers in Dan-Gweetaa (South Mande). In D. Paperno & E. L. Keenan (Eds.), Handbook of quantifiers in natural language: Volume 2. Studies in linguistics and philosophy, vol. 97 (pp. 203–280). Cham: Springer. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2020) Dan. In R. Vossen & G. Dimmendaal (Eds.), Oxford Handbook of African Languages, pp. 451–462. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Google Scholar
(2021) Dictionnaire Dan de l’Est – Français avec une esquisse de grammaire et un index français-dan. 2e édition. Paris - Man Mandenkan - Pȁbhɛ̄nbhȁbhɛ̏n.Google Scholar
Vydrin, Valentin; Zeh, Emmanuel; & Gué, Nestor
(2019) Guide de nouvelle orthographe dan de l’est pour les apprenants familiers avec l’ancienne orthographe [Guide to the new Eastern Dan orthography for learners already familiar with the old orthography]. Man: EDILIS. Google Scholar
Vydrine, Valentin
(2002) Some hasty notes on the ways of the evolution of Mande tonal systems. In R. Nicolai & P. Zima (Eds.), Lexical and structural diffusion (pp. 243–264). Nice & Prague: Faculté des Lettres, Arts et Sciences Humaines, Université de Nice & Faculté des Etudes Humaines, Université Charles de Prague.Google Scholar
(2006) Emergence of morphological cases in South Mande: From the amorphous type to inflectional? In L. Kulikov, A. Malchukov & P. de Swart (Eds.), Case, valency and transitivity (pp. 49–64). Leiden & Nijmegen: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2007) Les adjectifs en dan-gwèètaa [Adjectives in Dan-Gwèta]. Mandenkan, 43, 77–103.Google Scholar
(2009) Negation in South Mande. In N. Zyffer, E. Ebermann & G. Ziegelmeyer (Eds.), Negation patterns in West African languages and beyond (pp. 223–260). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2010) Le pied métrique dans les langues mandé [The metric foot in the Mande languages]. In F. Floricic (Ed.), Essais de typologie et de linguistique générale. Mélanges offerts à Denis Creissels (pp. 53–62). Lyon: Éditions ENS. Google Scholar
Vydrine, Valentin; & Kességbeu, Mongnan Alphonse
(2008) Dictionnaire dan – français (dan de l’Est) avec une esquisse de grammaire du dan de l’Est et un index français-dan [Eastern Dan-French dictionary with an Eastern Dan grammar sketch and a French-Dan index]. St Pétersbourg: Nestor-Istoria. Google Scholar
Walczyk, Jeffrey J.; & Griffith-Ross, Diana A.
(2007) How important is reading skill fluency for comprehension? The Reading Teacher, 60, 550–569. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Wang, Min; Anderson, Alida; Cheng, Chenxi; Park, Yoonjung; & Thomson, Jennifer
(2008) General auditory processing, Chinese tone processing, English phonemic processing, and English reading skill: A comparison between Chinese-English and Korean-English bilingual children. Reading and Writing, 21(6), 627–644. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Wang, Min; & Gao, Wei
(2011) Subsyllabic unit preference in learning to read pinyin syllables. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 36(2), 142–151. . CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Wang, Min; Li, Chuchu; & Lin, Candise Y.
(2015) The contributions of segmental and suprasegmental information in reading Chinese characters aloud. PLoS ONE, 10(11), e01452060. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Wang, Min; Perfetti, Charles A.; & Liu, Ying
(2005) Chinese-English biliteracy acquisition: Cross-language and writing systems transfer. Cognition, 97, 67–88. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Wang, Min; Yang, Chen; & Cheng, Chenxi
(2009) The contributions of phonology, orthography, and morphology in Chinese-English biliteracy acquisition. Applied Psycholinguistics, 30, 291–314. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Ward, I. C.
(1952) An introduction to the Yoruba language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar
Warren-Rothlin, Andy
(2014) West African scripts and Arabic-script orthographies in socio-political context. In M. Mumin & K. Versteegh (Eds.), The Arabic script in Africa: Studies in the use of a writing system (Vol. 71, pp. 261–292). Leiden: Brill. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Weathers, Andy
(2020) Vers une orthographe appropriée pour le tem [Towards an appropriate orthography for Tem]. Série électronique de documents de travail no 6. Lomé: SIL Togo-Bénin. https://​togo​-benin​.sil​.org​/fr​/resources​/archives​/84762 (accessed 16 February 2021).
Weber, R. M.
(1970a) First graders’ use of grammatical context in reading. In H. Levin & J. P. Williams (Eds.), Basic studies on reading (pp. 147–163). New York: Basic Books. Google Scholar
(1970b) A linguistic analysis of first-grade reading errors. Reading Research Quarterly, 6, 427–451. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Wedekind, Klaus
(1983) A six-tone language in Ethiopia: Tonal analysis of Benčnon (Gimira). Journal of Ethiopian Studies, 16, 129–156. Google Scholar
(1985a) Thoughts when drawing a map of tone languages. Afrikanistische Arbeitspapiere, 1, 105–124. Google Scholar
(1985b) Why Bench’ (Ethiopia) has five level tones today. In U. Pieper & G. Stickel (Eds.), Studia linguistica diachronica et synchronica (pp. 881–901). Berlin: Mouton. Google Scholar
West, Brady T.; Welch, Kathleen B.; & Galecki, Andrzej T.
(2015) Linear mixed models: A practical guide using statistical software, 2nd edition. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.Google Scholar
Westermann, Diedrich
(1933) Drei Dialekete des Tem in Togo : Tchala, Delo, Bago [Three Tem dialects in Togo: Tchala, Delo and Bago]. Mitteilungen des Seminars für orientalische Sprachen zu Berlin, 36, 7–33. Google Scholar
Westermann, Dietrich; & Bryan, M. A.
(1952) Part 2: Languages of West Africa. Oxford: Oxford University Press for International African Institute.Google Scholar
Wiederholt, J. L.; & Bryant, B. R.
(2003) Gray oral reading test, 4th edition. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed. Google Scholar
Wiener, Seth; & Ito, Kiwako
(2015) Do syllable-specific tonal probabilities guide lexical access? Evidence from Mandarin, Shanghai and Cantonese speakers. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience, 30(9), 1048–1060. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Wiesemann, Ursula
(1995) Tone orthography and pedagogy. Notes on Literacy, 21(3), 25–31. Google Scholar
Willetts, Karen
(1983) Élaboration de syllabaires en langues maternelles : approches théoriques [Developing mother-tongue primers: Theoretical approaches]. Abidjan: Institut de Linguistique Appliquée. Google Scholar
Williams, Joanna
(2015) Reading comprehension instruction: moving into a new era. In P. D. Pearson & E. H. Hiebert (Eds.), Research-based practices for teaching common core literacy (pp. 79–92). New York & London: Teachers College Press. Google Scholar
Wilsenach, Carien
(2013) Phonological skills as predictor of reading success: An investigation of emergent bilingual Northern Sotho/English learners. Per Linguam: A Journal of Language Learning / Tydskrif vir Taalaanleer, 29(2), 17–32. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2015) Receptive vocabulary and early literacy skills in bilingual Northern Sotho-English bilinguals. Reading and Writing, 6(1), Article 77. Google Scholar
Winrikou, Esaïe; & Koudi, Pascal
(2010) Guide pour lire et écrire la langue nateni pour ceux qui sont lettrés en francais, 2e édition [Nateni reading and writing guide for those who read French, 2nd edition]. Cotonou: SIL Bénin.Google Scholar
Winrikou, Esaïe; & Wiesemann, Ursula
(2008) Naàteǹni Biɔhàma : wa̰a̰cí pɔ̀kàta [Nateni primer, 3rd edition]. Tanguiéta: Association pour la Promotion des Saintes Écritures en Naténi & SIL Togo-Bénin. Google Scholar
Winrikou, Esaïe; Bukies, Ulrich; & Neukom, Lukas
(1994) Naàteǹni yèèka : lexique naténi – français [Nateni-French lexicon]. Cotonou: Centre National de Linguistique Appliquée & SIL. Google Scholar
Winskel, Heather
(2011) Orthographic and phonological parafoveal processing of consonants, vowels, and tones when reading Thai. Applied Psycholinguistics, 32, 739–759. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Winskel, Heather; & Iemwanthong, Kanyarat
(2010) Reading and spelling acquisition in Thai children. Reading and Writing, 23(9), 1021–1053. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Winskel, Heather; & Perea, Manuel
(2014) Does tonal information affect the early stages of visual-word processing in Thai? The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 67(2), 209–219. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Winskel, Heather; Ratitamkul, Theeraporn; & Charoensit, Akira
(2017) The role of tone and segmental information in visual-word recognition in Thai. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 70(7), 1282–1291. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Wouro-Banna, Tchagafou
(1994) Sémantisme du corps humain en tem [The semantics of the human body in Tem]. (Mémoire de maîtrise). Lomé: Université de Lomé. Google Scholar
Xu, B.; Li, J.; & Mok, P.
(2014) The effect of orthography on L2 perception. In C. Gussenhoven, Y. Chen & D. Dediu (Eds.), Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Tonal Aspects of Languages (TAL 2014) 13–16 May, 2014, Nijmegen (pp. 75–78). Baixas: International Speech Communication Association (ISCA) Archive. Google Scholar
Yip, Moira
(2002) Tone. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Zeh, Emmanuel
(2018) Rapport de l’assemblée générale d’adoption de la nouvelle orthographe en langue dan-est le samedi 8 décembre 2018 à Man-Libreville [Report of the General Assembly’s adoption of the new Eastern Dan orthography, Saturday 8 December 2018 in Man-Libreville] Unpublished manuscript. Man, Côte d’Ivoire. Google Scholar
Zutell, J.; & Rasinski, T. V.
(1991) Training teachers to attend to their students’ oral reading fluency. Theory into Practice, 30(3), 211–227. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Subjects & Metadata
BIC Subject: CFLA – Writing systems, alphabets
BISAC Subject: LAN021000 – LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES / Spelling & Vocabulary
ONIX Metadata
ONIX 2.1
ONIX 3.0
U.S. Library of Congress Control Number:  2020051890 | Marc record