Chapter published in:Sources of Variation in First Language Acquisition: Languages, contexts, and learners
Edited by Maya Hickmann †, Edy Veneziano and Harriet Jisa
[Trends in Language Acquisition Research 22] 2018
► pp. 287–312
Chapter 14A unified model of first and second language learning
The Unified Competition Model views first and second language learning as depending on a shared set of socio-cognitive processes. Differences between the two types of acquisition depend not on the expiration of a critical period, but on the operation of the risk factors of entrenchment, transfer, overanalysis, and isolation. Entrenchment is a neural process that arises from ongoing use of L1 across years. Transfer and parasitism arise from the dominance of L1 during initial L2 learning. Overanalysis stems from the tendency of adult learners to focus on content words, rather than phrases. Isolation arises from the tendency over time for L1 groups to reject the participation of out-group members and from increasing demands for the L1 group. These risk factors can be countered through the processes of resonance, decoupling, chunking, and participation that are available to all learners, but which must become sharpened to promote L2 acquisition.
Keywords: Competition Model, second language learning, critical period, entrenchment, overanalysis, transfer, social factors
- 2.Three frameworks
- 2.2Structural analysis
- 3.Risk factors and support factors
Published online: 22 February 2018
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