Article published in:
Understanding Writing Systems
Edited by Merijn Beeksma and Martin Neef
[Written Language & Literacy 21:1] 2018
► pp. 111145


Amaghlobeli, Natia
(2012) Linguistic features of typographic emoticons in SMS discourse. Theory and Practice in Language Studies 2(2): 348–354.Crossref link
Androutsopoulos, Jannis
(2011) Language change and digital media: A review of conceptions and evidence. In Tore Kristiansen & Nikolas Coupland (eds.), Standard Languages and Language Standards in a Changing Europe, 145–161. Oslo: Novus.
Anis, Jacques
(2007) Neography: Unconventional spelling in French SMS text messages. In Brenda Danet & Susan C. Herring (eds.), The multilingual internet: Language, culture, and communication online, 87–115. New York: Oxford University Press.Crossref link
Baars, Renske
(2016, April 25). Gelukkig maar! Jeugd spelt expres fout op WhatsApp. http://​www​.ad​.nl​/bizar​/gelukkig​-maar​-jeugd​-spelt​-expres​-fout​-op​-whatsapp~afae2d13.
Baron, Naomi S.
(1984) Computer mediated communication as a force in language change. Visible Language 18(2): 118–141.
(2004) See you online: Gender issues in college student use of instant messaging. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 23(4): 397–423.Crossref link
Bennis, Hans
(2015) Korterlands: Anarchie in de schrijftaal. Amsterdam: Promotheus Bert Bakker.
Bergs, Alexander T.
(2009) Just the same old story? The linguistics of text messaging and its cultural repercussions. In Charley Rowe & Eva L. Wyss (eds.), Language and new media: Linguistic, cultural, and technological evolutions, 55–73. Cresskill: Hampton Press.
Combes, Céline, Olga Volckaert-Legrier & Pierre Largy
(2014) Automatic or controlled writing? The effect of a dual task on SMS writing in novice and expert adolescents. In Louise-Amélie Cougnon & Cédrick Fairon (eds.), SMS communication: A linguistic approach, 47–65. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Craig, David
(2003) Instant messaging: The language of youth literacy. The Boothe Prize Essays 2003: 116–133.
Crystal, David
(2006) Language and the internet, second edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Crossref link
(2008) Txtng: The gr8 db8. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Danesi, Marcel
(2017) The semiotics of emoji: The rise of visual language in the age of the internet. London: Bloomsbury.
De Decker, Benny
(2015) Prototypische chatspeakkenmerken in Vlaamse tienerchattaal: De invloed van gender, leeftijd en medium. Taal en Tongval 67(1): 1–41.Crossref link
De Jonge, Sarah & Nenagh Kemp
(2012) Text-message abbreviations and language skills in high school and university students. Journal of Research in Reading 35(1): 49–68.
Dings, René
(2010) Weg om legging: Onjuist spatiegebruik in het Nederlands. Onze Taal 2010(4): 94–95.
Drouin, Michelle A. & Claire Davis
(2009) R u txting? Is the use of text speak hurting your literacy? Journal of Literacy Research 41(1): 46–67.Crossref link
Durkin, Kevin, Gina Conti-Ramsden & Allan J. Walker
(2011) Txt lang: Texting, textism use and literacy abilities in adolescents with and without specific language impairment. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning 27(1): 49–57.Crossref link
Dürscheid, Christa & Elisabeth Stark
(2013) Anything goes? SMS, phonographisches Schreiben und Morphemkonstanz. In Martin Neef & Carmen Scherer (eds.), Die Schnittstelle von Morphologie und geschriebener Sprache, 189–210. Berlin: de Gruyter.Crossref link
Evans, Vyvyan
(2017) The emoji code: How smiley faces, love hearts and thumbs up are changing the way we communicate. London: Michael O’Mara.
Frehner, Carmen
(2008) Email – SMS – MMS: The linguistic creativity of asynchronous discourse in the new media age. Bern: Peter Lang.
Geertsema, Salomé, Charene Hyman & Chantelle van Deventer
(2011) Short message service (SMS) language and written language skills: Educators’ perspectives. South African Journal of Education 31(4): 475–487.Crossref link
Grace, Abbie
(2013) Mobile phone text messaging language: How and why undergraduates use textisms. PhD thesis, University of Tasmania.
Hilte, Lisa, Reinhild Vandekerckhove & Walter Daelemans
(2016) Expressiveness in Flemish online teenage talk: A corpus-based analysis of social and medium-related linguistic variation. In Darja Fišer & Martin Beißwenger (eds.), Proceedings of the 4th conference on CMC and social media corpora for the humanities, 30–33. Ljubljana: Academic Publishing Division of the Faculty of Arts of the University of Ljubljana.
(2017) Modeling non-standard language use in adolescents’ CMC: The impact and interaction of age, gender and education. In Egon W. Stemle & Ciara R. Wigham (eds.), Proceedings of the 5th conference on CMC and social media corpora for the humanities, 611–615. Bolzano: Eurac Research.
Holmes, Janet
(1992) An introduction to sociolinguistics. London: Longman.
Instagram, Inc.
(2018) What is Instagram? Instagram. https://​help​.instagram​.com​/424737657584573
Kemp, Nenagh
(2010) Texting versus txting: Reading and writing text messages, and links with other linguistic skills. Writing Systems Research 2(1): 53–71.Crossref link
Kirsten Torrado, Úrsula
(2014) Development of SMS language from 2000 to 2010: A comparison of two corpora. In Louise-Amélie Cougnon & Cédrick Fairon (eds.), SMS communication: A linguistic approach, 67–85. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Koopmans, Aloys, Hedwich Steneker & Arjen Spoelstra
Labov, William
(1966) The social stratification of English in New York City. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.
Lanchantin, Tonia, Aurélie Simoës-Perlant & Pierre Largy
(2015) The amount of French text messaging related to spelling level: why some letters are produced and others are not? PsychNology Journal 13(1): 7–56.
Levenshtein, Vladimir I.
(1966) Binary codes capable of correcting deletions, insertions, and reversals. Soviet Physics Doklady 10(8): 707–710.
Marrón Fernández de Velasco, Daniel
(2015) From texting to Internet Language: Analysis of contemporary language evolution: The case of YouTube. Master thesis, University of Valladolid.
McWhorter, John
Neef, Martin
(2015) Writing systems as modular objects: Proposals for theory design in grapholinguistics. Open Linguistics 1(1): 708–721.Crossref link
Novak, Petra Kralj, Jasmina Smailovic, Borut Sluban & Igor Mozetič
(2015) Sentiment of emojis. PloS One 10(12): 1–21.
Oostdijk, Nelleke, Martin Reynaert, Véronique Hoste & Ineke Schuurman
(2013) The construction of a 500-million-word reference corpus of contemporary written Dutch. In Peter Spyns & Jan Odijk (eds.), Essential speech and language technology for Dutch: Results by the STEVIN programme, 219–247. Heidelberg: Springer.Crossref link
Panckhurst, Rachel
(2009) Short Message Service (SMS): typologie et problématiques futures. In Teddy Arnavielle (ed.), Polyphonies, pour Michelle Lanvin, 33–52. Université Paul-Valéry: Montpellier 3.
Peersman, Claudia, Walter Daelemans, Reinhild Vandekerckhove, Bram Vandekerckhove & Leona Van Vaerenbergh
(2016) The effects of age, gender and region on non-standard linguistic variation in online social networks http://​arxiv​.org​/abs​/1001​.02431
Pelkman, Martha
(2015, March 10). What’s App: taalverloedering of taalverrijking? DrsPee. https://​drspee​.nl​/whats​-app​-taalverloedering​-of​-taalverrijking
Pfeffer, Jürgen, Thomas Zorbach & Kathleen M. Carley
(2014) Understanding online firestorms: Negative word-of-mouth dynamics in social media networks. Journal of Marketing Communications 20(1–2): 117–128.Crossref link
Plester, Beverly, Clare Wood & Victoria Bell
(2008) Txt msg n school literacy: Does texting and knowledge of text abbreviations adversely affect children’s literacy attainment? Literacy 42(3): 137–144.Crossref link
Plester, Beverly, Clare Wood & Puja Joshi
(2009) Exploring the relationship between children’s knowledge of text message abbreviations and school literacy outcomes. British Journal of Developmental Psychology 27(1): 145–161.Crossref link
Postma, Koos
(2011) Geen paniek! Een analyse van de beeldvorming van sms-taal in Nederland. Master thesis, VU University Amsterdam.
Reinkemeyer, Anja
(2013) Die Formenvielfalt des langage SMS im Wechselspiel zwischen Effizienz, Expertise und Expressivität: eine Untersuchung der innovativen Schreibweise in französischen SMS. Tübingen.
Rosen, Larry D., Jennifer Chang, Lynne Erwin, L. Mark Carrier & Nancy A. Cheever
(2010) The relationship between ‘textisms’ and formal and informal writing among young adults. Communication Research 37(3): 420–440.Crossref link
Rutkowska, Hannah, & Paul Rössler
(2012) Orthographic variables. In Juan Manuel Hernández-Campoy & Juan Camilo Conde-Silvestre (eds.), The handbook of historical sociolinguistics, 221–244. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.Crossref link
Schmidt, Carl
Schwartz, H. Andrew, Johannes C. Eichstaedt, Margaret L. Kern, Lukasz Dziurzynski, Stephanie M. Ramones, Megha AgrawalLyle H. Ungar
(2013) Personality, gender, and age in the language of social media: The open-vocabulary approach. PLoS ONE 8(9): e73791.Crossref link
Seuren, Lucas
(2017, March 9). WhatsAppachtig taalgebruik. Neerlandistiek. http://​www​.neerlandistiek​.nl​/2017​/03​/13135
Shortis, Tim
(2007) Gr8 txtpectations: The creativity of text spelling. English Drama Media 8: 21–26.
Silva, Cláudia
(2011) Writing in Portuguese chats :). A new wrtng systm? Written Language & Literacy 14(1): 143–156.Crossref link
Snap Inc.
(2018) When does Snapchat delete Snaps and Chats? Snapchat Support. https://​support​.snapchat​.com​/en​-GB​/a​/when​-are​-snaps​-chats​-deleted
Stoffelen, Anneke
(2016, January 21). Docenten: ‘Vak Nederlands moet op de schop’. De Volkskrant. http://​www​.volkskrant​.nl​/binnenland​/docenten​-vak​-nederlands​-moet​-op​-de​-schop~a4229820
Tagg, Caroline
(2015) Exploring digital communication: Language in action. London / New York: Routledge.Crossref link
Tagg, Caroline, Alistair Baron & Paul Rayson
(2014) “i didn’t spel that wrong did i. Oops”: Analysis and normalisation of SMS spelling variation. In Louise-Amélie Cougnon & Cédrick Fairon (eds.), SMS communication: A linguistic approach, 217–237. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Thurlow, Crispin & Alex Brown
(2003) Generation txt? The sociolinguistics of young people’s text-messaging. Discourse Analysis Online 1. Retrieved from https://​extra​.shu​.ac​.uk​/daol​/articles​/v1​/n1​/a3​/thurlow2002003​-paper​.html
Thurlow, Crispin & Michele Poff
(2013) Text messaging. In Susan Herring, Dieter Stein & Tuija Virtanen (eds.), Pragmatics of computer-mediated communication, 163–190. Berlin/New York: De Gruyter.Crossref link
Ting-Toomey, Stella & Atsuko Kurogi
(1998) Facework competence in intercultural conflict: An updated face-negotiation theory. International Journal of Intercultural Relations 22(2): 187–225.Crossref link
Urban Dictionary. “1337 speak.”
Vandekerckhove, Reinhild & Dominiek Sandra
(2016) De potentiële impact van informele online communicatie op de spellingpraktijk van Vlaamse tieners in schoolcontext. Tijdschrift voor Taalbeheersing 38(3): 201–234.Crossref link
Varnhagen, Connie K., G. Peggy McFall, Nicole Pugh, Lisa Routledge, Heather Sumida-MacDonald & Trudy E. Kwong
(2010) lol: New language and spelling in instant messaging. Reading and Writing 23(6): 719–733.Crossref link
Veer, Neil van der, Steven Boekee, Hans Hoekstra & Oscar Peters
Verheijen, Lieke
(2013) The effects of text messaging and instant messaging on literacy. English Studies 94(5): 582–602.Crossref link
(2015) Out-of-the-ordinary orthography: the use of textisms in Dutch youngsters’ written computer-mediated communication. York Papers in Linguistics, special issue, PARLAY Proceedings 2: 127–142.
Verheijen, Lieke, & Wessel Stoop
(2016) Collecting Facebook posts and WhatsApp chats: corpus compilation of private social media messages. In P. Sojka et al. (eds.), Text, Speech and Dialogue: 19th International Conference, TSD 2016, LNAI 9924, 249–258. Springer.Crossref link
Werry, Christopher C.
(1996) Linguistic and interactional features of Internet Relay Chat. In Susan C. Herring (ed.), Computer-mediated communication: Linguistic, social and cross-cultural perspectives, 47–63. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Crossref link
Winzker, Kristy, Frenette Southwood & Kate Huddlestone
(2009) Investigating the impact of SMS speak on the written work of English first language and English second language high school learners. Per Linguam 25(2): 1–16.
Zappavigna, Michele
(ed.) (2012) Discourse of Twitter and social media: How we use language to create affiliation on the Web. New York: Continuum.