Publication details [#10071]

Wierzbicka, Anna. 1975. Topic, focus, and deep structure. Papers in Linguistics 8 (1-2) : 59–87.
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W. claims that the element in focus in a sentence is always a deep structure constituent. A focus pattern is said to be 'neutral' if the part in focus corresponds to a full sentence in deep structure (e.g. 'John kissed Mary' as a statement about John is its neutral form, because the element in focus, 'kissed Mary', is derived from a full sentence 'x kissed Mary'); it is 'marked' in all other cases. This is taken as evidence for the belief that surface structure is not semantically relevant and that deep structure and semantic representation are the same thing.