Publication details [#41059]

Cooper, Carolyn. 2004. Mix Up the Indian with all the Patwa: Rajamuffin Sounds in ‘Cool’ Britannia. Language and Intercultural Communication 4 (1-2) : 81–99.
Publication type
Article in journal
Publication language
Language as a subject
Place, Publisher
Multilingual Matters


This paper discusses how the multilingual, border-crossing, urban youth of the Birmingham Handsworth district appropriates the ‘patwa’ language of Jamaicans and mixes this with their own Punjabi. The resulting polyvocal sound illustrates the ways in which the creolisation process takes on new dynamics in Britannia itself.