Publication details [#56896]

Friedmann, Victor A. 2012. Enhancing national solidarity through the deployment of verbal categories: How the Albanian Admirative participates in the construction of a reliable self and an unreliable other. Pragmatics and Society 3 (2) : 189–225.
Publication type
Article in journal
Publication language
Place, Publisher
John Benjamins
Journal DOI


The deployment of the Albanian admirative as well as the evidential particles kinse ‘allegedly’ and gjoja ‘supposedly’ in Kosovar electronic news sources to render either dubitative or neutral reports — depending on both the source and the timing — contributed to the project of an independent Kosovo. The usages can be divided into three periods: 1994–1997, 1998–1999, and post-1999. During the first period, usage was exclusively dubitative and deployed for Serbian news sources. During the second period, which corresponded to the intensification of the armed uprising, usage shifted to neutrality, and during the third period, after the NATO bombing campaign, it returned somewhat to dubitativity, this time aimed at UN and NATO sources. The discussion demonstrates how pragmatics and grammatical categories contribute to the construction of political narratives and argues that a socially informed linguistic analysis is crucial to understanding how politics is performed in the world.