Publication details [#57360]

Kitayama, Tamaki. 2013. The distribution and characteristics of Japanese vocatives in business situations. Pragmatics 23 (3) : 447–479.
Publication type
Article in journal
Publication language
Language as a subject
Place, Publisher
International Pragmatics Association
Journal DOI


This article discusses how the types and distributional features of Japanese vocatives in Tokyo business situations, relate to politeness levels and the cultural constraints of “power” (age and status) and “distance” (in- or out-group), and hardly differ in form in business and private contexts.