Publication details [#57692]

Katz, Albert N. and James Boylan. 2013. Ironic Expression Can Simultaneously Enhance and Dilute Perception of Criticism. Discourse Processes 50 (3) : 187–209.
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It is argued that the use of ironic criticism between may be rated as more humorous, polite, and positive, but also as more sarcastic and mocking than direct criticism. Two novel findings stand out. First, ironic expression (yet not direct expression) makes lacking expectations aimed at by criticism, appear less negative. Second, a greater conformity exists between speaker intention ratings and social impression for ironic expression ratings than for directly conveyed criticism.