Publication details [#59579]

Sundar, S.S., Justin Walden, Eun Hwa Jung and Ariel Celeste Johnson. 2015. Mental models of robots among senior citizens. An interview study of interaction expectations and design implications. Interaction Studies 16 (1) : 68–88.
Publication type
Article in journal
Publication language
Place, Publisher
John Benjamins
Journal DOI


An emerging topic in robot design and scholarly research is socially assistive robots (SAR) for senior citizens. Compared to robots in other sectors, SARs can augment their assistive-utilitarian functions by offering social, emotional, and cognitive support to seniors. This study draws upon interviews with 45 senior citizens to understand this group’s expectations for human-robot interactions (HRI) and their anticipated needs for robots. This grounded theory analysis suggests that senior citizens expect robots to meet three types of needs: physical, informational, and interactional. Furthermore, they seek assurances that they will have complete control over interactions with robots. Findings show that seniors’ mental models about robots are shaped by their recent experiences with advanced communications technologies and mediated representations of robots in popular culture. Findings are discussed in light of practical design considerations and two theoretical perspectives.