Publication details [#63125]

David, Maya Khemlani, Francisco Perlas Dumanig and Syed Abdul Manan. 2017. The English-medium fever in Pakistan: analyzing policy, perceptions and practices through additive bi/multilingual education lens. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 20 (6) : 736–752.
Publication type
Article in journal
Publication language
Language as a subject
Place, Publisher


This study explores the crisis of English teaching in Pakistan. It explores stakeholders’ perceptions and classroom practices to distinguish theoretical fault lines and institutional/pedagogical challenges in the low-fee schools. It is deemed critical in the backdrop of public's heavy reliance and feverish pursuit of low-fee English-medium schools which have expanded exponentially off late. Using mixed methodology that employed a questionnaire, interviews and observation, the inquiry draws information from students, teachers and school principals. Results propose that most respondents perceive early-English policy inevitable, and believe that the earlier the English-medium policy, the better. Respondents’ majority also views additive multilingual policy unfavorably presuming that more languages will amount to learners’ confusion. Teaching mother tongues is being perceived as waste of time. Actual English teaching practices seem illusory, as direct and contextualized use of English is a rare feature while Urdu stands as the de facto medium of classroom transactions. Grammar-translation methodologies and classrooms activities leave little potential for communicative competence, concept formulation and linguistic internalization. It is concluded that although respondents’ support for English-medium policy is rational, however, it is fraught with illusions as neither teaching/learning practices replicate English-medium policy nor bi/multilingual education research supports foreign language as medium for early schooling.