Publication details [#64064]

Bartneck, Christoph and Elena Moltchanova. 2018. Individual differences are more important than the emotional category for the perception of emotional expressions. Interaction Studies 18 (2) : 161–173.
Publication type
Article in journal
Publication language
Place, Publisher
John Benjamins
Journal DOI


Emotional facial expression are an important communication channel between artificial characters and their users. Humans are trained to perceive emotions. Robots and virtual agents can use them to make their inner states transparent. Literature reported that some emotional types, such as anger, are perceived as being more intense than others. Other studies indicated that gender influences the perception. This study shows that once the individual differences amongst participants are included in the statistical analysis, then the emotion type has no further explanatory power. Artificial characters therefore should adapt to their specific users. Keywords: expression, gender, individual, emotion, differences