Publication details [#67509]

Publication type
Article in book
Publication language


This chapter investigates the extent of similarity in the use of stance markers in two national varieties of West African English, Nigerian English and Ghanaian English, and compares them to British English. The frequency and stylistic variability of four semantic groups of stance markers were examined in ICE-Nigeria and ICE-Ghana and compared with ICE-Great Britain. The results are mixed: the two West African varieties show an overall lower frequency of stance markers compared to British English but the speakers of the two West African English varieties do not demonstrate lower stylistic variability in the use of stance markers across different text types. Notwithstanding, there are systematic differences in stance marker usage between the two West African English varieties.