Publication details [#11726]

Leppink, Jimmie, Fred Paas, Tamara Van Gog, Cees P.M. Van der Vleuten and Jeroen J.G. Van Merriënboer. 2014. Effects of pairs of problems and examples on task performance and different types of cognitive load. Learning and Instruction 30 : 32–42. 11 pp.
Publication type
Article in journal
Publication language
Place, Publisher
Amsterdam: Elsevier


The present article provides us with two pieces of research on cognitive load and task performance. A psychometric instrument was created with the aim of distinguishing between the three types of cognitive load, namely intrinsic, extraneous and germane cognitive load. The first study revealed that intrinsic and extraneous cognitive load have a negative correlation with task performance, whereas germane cognitive load, which is closely connected with working memory, can lead to enhanced learning outcomes. Moreover, the results of the second study indicated that example-example and example-problem pairs of tasks encourage better performances compared to problem-example and problem-problem pairs of tasks. The authors concluded that future research is essential since no safe conclusions can be drawn unless more studies are carried out. Were we finally to delineate which is the kind of cognitive load that facilitates the learning process, we would direct our efforts towards maximizing it and having, therefore, better and more productive task performance with less mental effort.