Publication details [#13303]

Littlemore, Jeannette, Phyllis Chen, Almut Koester and John Barnden. 2011. Difficulties in Metaphor Comprehension Faced by International Students whose First Language is not English. Applied Linguistics 32 (4) : 408–429. 22 pp.
Publication type
Article in journal
Publication language


This paper deals with the comprehension of metaphorical words and multiword items by a group of international students whose first language is not English. The authors develop a measure for assessing students’ metaphorical awareness and their difficulty in the interpretation of metaphors. They also present a scheme for categorizing the most common types of metaphoric misinterpretations. The error categorization system is considered useful for English learners who use metaphors for specific purposes.