Publication details [#2287]

Gass, Michael A. 1995. Book of Metaphors: Volume 2. Dubuque, Ind.: Kendall / Hunt. 242 pp.


This book presents group activities that use metaphors to enhance learning for participants in adventure-based programs. The first chapter provides an overview of approaches to facilitating adventure experiences, including letting the experience speak for itself, speaking for the experience, debriefing the experience, directly frontloading the experience, framing the experience, and indirectly frontloading the experience. The last three facilitation styles, which rely on proactive techniques and focus on behavior change, represent the majority of activities described in this book. The second chapter describes a process for designing metaphoric frameworks: stating and ranking goals; selecting an appropriate metaphoric adventure experience; identifying successful resolutions to therapeutic issues; strengthening isomorphic frameworks; reviewing client motivation; conducting experience revisions; and using debriefing techniques to reinforce positive behavior changes, reframe negative interpretations of the experience, and focus on the integration of functional change into the client's lifestyle. The third chapter addresses ethical considerations when implementing adventure activities. The remaining chapters describe 57 adventure activities designed for therapeutic, corporate, school, and general populations. Each description covers the target population; when the activity might be used; any contraindicating or limiting factors; goals; set-up; a sample presentation; an overview of facilitator role and strategies for enhancing the value of the experience; debriefing strategies that address issues arising during the activity, especially with regard to clients' past behaviors, current needs, and future considerations; and the name and address of the contributor. Indexes of activities and contributors are included. (LP; Publisher Book Description)