Publication details [#8712]

Pawlowski, Donna R., Diane M. Badzinski and Nancy Mitchell. 1998. Effects of metaphors on children's comprehension and perception of print advertisements. Journal of Advertising 27 (2) : 83–98. 16 pp.
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Article in journal
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To see whether metaphors affected children's comprehension of printed advertisements, subjects (N = 20 second, 22 fourth, and 20 sixth graders) were shown advertisements with either metaphors in both pictorial and verbal form or a literal equivalent. The sixth graders interpreted more metaphors correctly than the fourth and second graders. In terms of recall of advertised content, the sixth and fourth graders recalled brand names, products, and additional copy better than the second graders. Within each grade level, metaphors did not enhance children's recall of advertised content or perceptions of the understandability of the advertisements and liking of the advertised products. It is speculated that metaphors are most likely to enhance recall under conditions in which the metaphor serves as a direct representation linking the metaphor to the advertised product. The findings suggest that advertisers should be aware that young readers may have difficulty interpreting metaphors and that metaphors may not be more effective in terms of children's recall and perception of understandability than literal versions of advertisements. (LLBA 1999, vol. 33, n. 4)