Deontic logic is the logical study of normative concepts in language. Its subject matter is a variety of normative concepts, notably those of obligation, prohibition, permission and commitment. The first one among these concepts is often expressed by such words as ‘shall’, ‘ought’, and ‘must’, the second by ‘shall not’, ‘ought not’ and ‘must not’, and the third one by ‘may’. The fourth notion amounts to an idea of conditional obligation, expressible by ‘if …, then it shall (must) be the case that -’.

References

Åqvist, L.

1984Deontic logic. In D. Gabbay & F. Guenther (eds.) Handbook of philosophical logic, vol. 2: 605–714. Reidel.

Anderson, A. R.

1956The formal analysis of normative systems. In N. Rescher (ed.) 1967 The logic of decision and action: 147–213. University of Pittsburgh Press.

Anderson, A. R.

1958A reduction of deontic logic to alethic model logic. Mind 67: 100–103.

Castañeda, H-N.

1981The paradoxes of deontic logic. In R. Hilpinen (ed.): 37–86.

Van Eck, J. E.

1981A system of temporally relative modal and deontic predicate logic and its philosophical applications. University of Groningen.

Feldman, F.

1986Doing the best we can. Reidel.

Føllesdal, D. & R. Hilpinen

1971Deontic logic. In R. Hilpinen (ed.): 1–35.

Forrester, J.

1989Why you should. University Press of New England.

Hanson, W. H.

1965Semantics for deontic logic. Logique et Analyse 8: 177–190.

Hilpinen, R.

(ed.)1971Deontic logic. Reidel.

Hilpinen, R.

1981New studies in deontic logic. Reidel.

Hintikka, J.

1957Quantifiers in Deontic Logic. Societas Scientiarum Fennica: Commentationes Humanarum Litterarum 23: 4.

Hintikka, J.

1970Deontic logic and its philosophical morals. In: J. Hintikka, Models for modalities: 184–214Reidel.

Hintikka, J.

1971Some main problems of deontic logic. In R. Hilpinen (ed.): 59–104.

Kanger, S.

1957New foundations for ethical theory. In R. Hilpinen (ed.) (1971): 36–58.

Kripke, S. A.

1963aSemantical analysis of modal logic I. Zeitschrift für mathematische Logik und Grundlagen der Mathematik 9: 67–96.

Kripke, S. A.

1963bSemantical considerations on modal logic. Acta philosophica Fennica 16: 83–94.

Mally, E.

1926Grundgesetze des Sollens. Lueschner & Lubensky.

Montague, R.

1960Logical necessity, physical necessity, ethics, and quantifiers. Inquiry 4: 259–269.

Montague, R.

1968Pragmatics. In R. Klibansky (ed.) Contemporary philosophy, vol. 1: 102–122. La Nuova Italia Editrice.

Oppenheim, F. E.

1944Outline of a logical analysis of law. Philosophy of Science 11: 142–160.

Prior, A.

1967Past, present and future. Clarendon Press.

Rescher, N. & A. Urquhart

1971Temporal logic. Springer Verlag.

Ross, A.

1941Imperatives and logic. Theoria 7: 53–71.

Schotch, P. K. & R. E. Jennings

1981Non-Kripkean deontic logic. In R. Hilpinen (ed.) 1981., 149–164.

Thomason, R. H.

1981Deontic logic as founded on tense logic. in Hilpinen (ed.): 165–176.

Von Wright, G. H.

1951Deontic logic. Mind 60: 1–15.

Von Wright, G. H.

1956A note on deontic logic and derived obligation. Mind 65: 506–509.

Von Wright, G. H.

1964A new system of deontic logic. Danish Yearbook of Philosophy, vol 1: 173–182.

Von Wright, G. H.

1965A correction to a new system of deontic logic. Danish Yearbook of Philosophy vol 2: 103–107.

Wedberg, A.

1951Some problems in the logical analysis of legal science. Theoria 17: 146–275.