Bilingualism and multilingualism

Monica Heller
Table of contents

Studies of bilingualism and multilingualism have a long history, yet the reason why these phenomena have been taken as objects of scrutiny is not because they have been central to dominant social and political ideologies, but rather because of the challenge they have presented to prevailing ideologies. Indeed, whenever monolingualism has been central to imperial expansion or the construction of nation-states, multilingualism has been consequently seen as a problem to be understood (through scientific description) and thereby controlled.

Full-text access is restricted to subscribers. Log in to obtain additional credentials. For subscription information see Subscription & Price.


Auer, P.
1984Bilingual conversation. John Benjamins. DOI logo  BoPGoogle Scholar
1988A conversation analytic approach to code-switching and transfer. In M. Heller (ed.) Codeswitching: 187–214. Mouton de Gruyter. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Balibar, R. & D. Laporte
1974Le Francais national. Hachette.Google Scholar
Bourdieu, P.
1977L’économie des échanges linguistiques. Langue française 34: 17–34. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Clément, R. & Y. Beauregard
1986Peur d’assimilation et confiance en soi. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science 18(2): 189–198. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Ervin, S.
1961Semantic shift in bilingualism. American Journal of Psychology 74: 233–241. DOI logo  BoPGoogle Scholar
1964Language and T. A. T. content in bilinguals. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 68: 500–507. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Ferguson, C.
1964Diglossia. In D. Hymes (ed.) Language in culture and society: 429–439. Harper and Row.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Fishman, J.
1972aDomains and the relationship between macro- and microsociolinguistics. In J. Gumperz & D. Hymes (eds.) Directions in sociolinguistics: 435–453. Harper and Row.  BoPGoogle Scholar
(ed.) 1972bReadings in the sociology of language. Mouton.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Fishman, J., R. Cooper et al.
1971Bilingualism in the Barrio. Indiana University Press.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Gal, S.
1979Language shift. Academic Press.  BoPGoogle Scholar
1988The political economy of code choice. In M. Heller (ed.) Codeswitching: 245–264. Mouton de Gruyter. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Genesee, F. & R. Bourhis
1982The social psychological significance of codeswitching in cross-cultural communication. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 1: 1–28. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Giles, H. & R.St Clair
(eds.) 1979Language and social psychology. Oxford University Press.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Grillo, R.D.
1989Dominant languages. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Grosjean, F.
1990The psycholinguistics of language contact and code-switching. In European Science Foundation Network on Code-switching and Language Contact Workshop on Concepts, Methodology and Data: 105–113. ESF.Google Scholar
Gumperz, J.
1971Language in social groups. Stanford University Press.  BoPGoogle Scholar
1982Discourse strategies. Cambridge University Press. DOI logo  BoPGoogle Scholar
Gumperz, J. & E. Hernandez-Chavez
1971Bilingualism, bidialectalism and classroom interaction. In J. Gumperz, Language in social groups: 311–339. Stanford University Press.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Harley, B.
1986Age in second-language acquisition. College Hill Press.Google Scholar
Haugen, E.
1953The Norwegian language in America. University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
1956Bilingualism in the Americas. University of Alabama, American Dialect Society.Google Scholar
Heller, M.
1982Negotiations of language choice in Montreal. In J. Gumperz (ed.) Language in social interaction: 108–118. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
1992The politics of code-switching and language choice. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 13(1/2): 123–142. DOI logo  BoPGoogle Scholar
1995Code-switching and the politics of language. In L. Milroy & P. Muysken (eds.) One speaker, two languages. Cambridge University Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Hill, J.
1985The grammar of consciousness and the consciousness of grammar. American Ethnologist 12(4): 725–737. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
1987Women’s speech in modern Mexicano. In S. Philips, S. Steele & C. Tanz (eds.) Language, sex and gender in comparative perspective: 121–160. Cambridge University Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Hill, J. & K. Hill
1986Speaking Mexicano. University of Arizona Press.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Hyltenstam, K.
1990Language mixing in Alzheimer’s dementia. In European Science Foundation Network on Code-switching and Language Contact Workshop on Constraints, Conditions and Models: 221–254. ESF.Google Scholar
Hyltenstam, K. & L. Obler
(eds.) 1989Bilingualism across the lifespan. Cambridge University Press. DOI logo  BoPGoogle Scholar
Irvine, J.
1989When talk isn’t cheap. American Ethnologist 16: 248–267. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Kroskrity, P., B. Schieffelin & K. Woolard
(eds.) 1992Special issue on language ideologies. Pragmatics 2(3): 235–453. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Kulick, D.
1992Language shift and cultural reproduction. Cambridge University Press.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Lambert, W., R. Hodgson, R. Gardner & S. Fillenbaum
1960Evaluative reactions to spoken language. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 60: 44–51. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Mcclure, E.
1981Formal and functional aspects of the codeswitched discourse of bilingual children. In R. Durán (ed.) Latino language and communicative behavior: 69–94. Ablex.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Meisel, J.
1989Early differentiation of languages in bilingual children. In K. Hyltenstam & L. Obler (eds.) Bilingualism across the lifespan: 13–40. Cambridge University Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
(ed.) 1990Two first languages. Foris. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Paradis, M.
1977Bilingualism and aphasia. In H. Whitaker & H.A. Whitaker (eds.) Studies in neurolinguistics: 65–121. Academic Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
1981Neurolinguistic organization of a bilingual’s two language. The Seventh LACUS Forum 1980.: 480–494. Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
Penfield, W. & L. Roberts
1959Speech and brain-mechanisms. Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Ryan, E. & H. Giles
(eds.) 1982Attitudes towards language variation. Arnold.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Scherer, K. & H. Giles
(eds.) 1979Social markers in speech. Cambridge University Press.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Weinreich, U.
1952Language in contact. Linguistic Circle of New York.Google Scholar
Woolard, K.
1985Language variation and cultural hegemony. American Ethnologist 12(4): 738–748. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
1989Double talk. Stanford University Press.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Zentella, A.
1981Ta bien, you could answer me in cualquier idioma. In R. Durán (ed.) Latino language and communicative behavior: 109–131. Ablex.  BoPGoogle Scholar