Creoles and creolization

Salikoko S. Mufwene
Table of contents

In a strict sense, creoles are new language varieties which developed out of contacts between colonial nonstandard varieties of a European language and several non-European languages in the western Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans during the seventeenth through the early twentieth centuries. Examples include Saramaccan and Sranan in Surinam (lexified by English, with the former also heavily influenced by Portuguese and the latter by Dutch), Papiamentu in the Netherlands Antilles (lexified by Portuguese and influenced by Spanish), Haitian, Mauritian, and Seychellois (lexified by French), and Gullah in the United States, Hawaiian Creole, Jamaican, and Guyanese (lexified by English).

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