Deontic logic is the logical study of normative concepts in language. Its subject matter is a variety of normative concepts, notably those of obligation, prohibition, permission and commitment. The first one among these concepts is often expressed by such words as ‘shall’, ‘ought’, and ‘must’, the second by ‘shall not’, ‘ought not’ and ‘must not’, and the third one by ‘may’. The fourth notion amounts to an idea of conditional obligation, expressible by ‘if …, then it shall (must) be the case that -’.

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