When students of ‘attitudes to language’ reflect on the methodological approach to apply in an investigation, they can choose from a number of both quantitative and qualitative methods. Like in any scientific endeavour, the choice of methods depends on research interest (the goal of study) and the theory about the object of study. I shall devote the first part of the chapter to elaborating on these primary issues (Sections 1–2), before moving on in the second part to dealing with concrete methods (Sections 3–6).
2019 “The relationship between implicit and explicit attitudes to British accents in enhancing the persuasiveness of children’s oral health campaigns.” Linguistics Vanguard 5: s1.
Allport, G. W.
1935 “Attitudes.” In A Handbook of Social Psychology II, ed. by C. Murchison, 798–844. Worcester, MA: Clark University Press.
Auer, P., B. Barden and B. Grosskopf
1998 “Subjective and objective parameters determining ‘salience’ in long-term dialect accommodation.” Journal of Sociolinguistics 2 (2): 163–187.
Bishop, H., N. Coupland and P. Garrett
2005 “Conceptual accent evaluation: Thirty years of accent prejudice in the UK.” Acta Linguistica Hafniensia 37: 131–154.
Bourhis, R. Y.
1984 “Cross-cultural communication in Montreal: Two field studies since Bill 101.” International Journal of the Sociology of Language 46: 33–48.
Bourhis, R. Y. and H. Giles
1976 “The language of cooperation in Wales: A field study.” Language Sciences 42: 13–16.
1995Verbal Hygiene. Abingdon: Routledge.
2000Good to talk? Living and Working in a Communication Culture. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
2012 “The implicit association test and sociolinguistic meaning.” Lingua 122 (7): 753–763.
2013 “Connecting attitudes and language behavior via implicit sociolinguistic cognition.” In Language (De)standardization in Late Modern Europe: Experimental Studies, ed. by T. Kristiansen and S. Grondelaers, 307–330. Oslo: Novus Press.
Cooper, R. L.
1975 “Introduction to language attitudes II.” International Journal of the Sociology of Language 6: 5–9.
2007Style. Language Variation and Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
2010 “ ‘Other’ representation.” In Society and Language Use [Handbook of Pragmatics Highlights 7], ed. by J. Jaspers, J.-O. Östman and J. Verschueren, 241–260. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Coupland, N. and H. Bishop
2007 “Ideologised values for British accents.” Journal of Sociolinguistics 11 (1): 74–93.
Coupland, N. and A. Jaworski
2004 “Sociolinguistic perspectives on metalanguage: Reflexivity, evaluation and ideology.” In Metalanguage. Social and Ideological Perspectives, ed. by A. Jaworski, N. Coupland and D. Galasiński, 15–51. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
2012 “Three waves of variation study: The emergence of meaning in the study of sociolinguistic variation.” Annual Review of Anthropology 41: 87–100.
2019 “The limits of meaning: Social indexicality, variation, and the cline of interiority.” Language 95 (4): 751–776.
Eckert, P. and W. Labov
2017 “Phonetics, phonology and social meaning.” Journal of Sociolinguistics 21 (4): 467–496.
Ekberg, L. and J.-O. Östman
2020 “Identity construction and dialect acquisition among immigrants in rural areas – the case of Swedish-language Finland.” Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development.
Evans, B. E., E. J. Benson and J. N. Stanford
2018 “Preface. Prestonian language regard.” In Language Regard. Methods, Variation and Change, ed. by B. E. Evans, E. J. Benson and J. N. Stanford. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
1992 “The appropriacy of “appropriateness”.” In Critical Language Awareness, ed. by N. Fairclough, 33–56. London: Longman.
Fishman, J. A.
1972The Sociology of Language: An Interdisciplinary Social Science Approach to Language in Society. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
2010Attitudes to Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Garrett, P., N. Coupland and A. Williams
2003Investigating Language Attitudes. Social Meanings of Dialect, Ethnicity and Performance. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.
Garrett, P., N. Coupland and A. Williams
2004 “Adolescents’ lexical repertoires of peer evaluation: Boring prats and English snobs.” In Metalanguage. Social and Ideological Perspective, ed. by A. Jaworski, N. Coupland and D. Galasiński, 193–225. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Gawronski, B. and G. V. Bodenhausen
2006 “Associative and propositional processes in evaluation: An integrative review of implicit and explicit attitude change.” Psychological Bulletin 13 (5): 692–731.
1970 “Evaluative reactions to accents.” Educational Review 22: 211–227.
Giles, H. and N. Coupland
1991Language: Contexts and Consequences. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Giles, H. and P. E. Powesland
1975Speech Styles and Social Evaluation. Cambridge, MA: Academic Press.
Giles, H., M. Hewstone, E. B. Ryan and P. Johnson
1987 “Research on Language Attitudes.” In Sociolinguistics. An International Handbook of the Science of Language and Society, ed. by U. Ammon, N. Dittmar and K. J. Mattheier, 585–597. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
Greenwald, A. G. and B. A. Nosek
2008 “Attitudinal dissociation: What does it mean?” In Attitudes: Insights from the New Implicit Measures, ed. by R. E. Petty, R. H. Fazio and P. Briñol, 65–82. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Hogg, M. A. and D. Abrams
1988Social Identifications: A Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations and Group Processes. Abingdon: Routledge.
Jacobsen, J. í
2012Ærlig talt, who cares? En sociolingvistisk undersøgelse af holdninger til og brug af importord og afløsningsord i færøsk [Moderne importord i språka i Norden 13]. Oslo: Novus.
Kerswill, P.E. and A. Williams
2002 “ ‘Salience’ as an explanatory factor in language change: Evidence from dialect levelling in urban England.”. In Language change: The interplay of internal, external and extra-linguistic factors, ed. by M.C. Jones and, E. Esch, 81–110. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Kircher, R. and L. Zipp
(eds) forthc Research Methods in Language AttitudesCambridgeCambridge University Press
1990Udtalenormering i skolen. Skitse af en ideologisk bastion. Copenhagen: Gyldendal.
1991Sproglige normidealer på Næstvedegnen. Kvantitative sprogholdningsstudier. Ph.D. thesis, University of Copenhagen.
1997 “Language Attitudes in a Danish Cinema.” In Sociolinguistics. A Reader and Coursebook, ed. by N. Coupland and A. Jaworski, 291–305. New York: Macmillan.
2004 “Social meaning and norm-ideals for speech in a Danish community.” In Metalanguage. Social and Ideological Perspectives, ed. by A. Jaworski, N. Coupland and D. Galasiński, 167–192. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
2006Nordiske sprogholdninger: En masketest [Moderne importord i språka i Norden V]. Oslo: Novus Forlag.
2009 “The macro-level social meanings of late-modern Danish accents.” Acta Linguistica Hafniensia 41: 167–192.
2010 “Conscious and subconscious attitudes towards English Imports in the Nordic countries: Evidence for two levels of language ideology.” International Journal of the Sociology of Language 204: 59–95.
2011 “Attitudes, ideology and awareness.” In The SAGE Handbook of Sociolinguistics, ed. by R. Wodak, B. Johnston and P. Kerswill, 265–278. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
2014 “Knowing the driving force in language change: Density or subjectivity?” Journal of Sociolinguistics 18 (2): 233–241.
2015 “The primary relevance of subconsciously offered attitudes: Focusing the language ideological aspect of sociolinguistic change.” In Responses to Language Varieties. Variability, Processes and Outcomes, ed. by A. Prikhodkine and D. R. Preston, 87–116. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
2018 “Language awareness and language change.” In The Routledge Handbook of Language Awarenes, ed. by P. Garrett and J. M. Cots, 387–401. Abingdon: Routledge.
forthc. “The theatre-audience method.” In Research Methods in Language Attitudes ed. by R. Kircher and L. ZippCambridgeCambridge University Press
Kerswill, P. E. and A. Williams
2002 “ ‘Salience’ as an explanatory factor in language change: Evidence from dialect levelling in urban England.” In Language change: The interplay of internal, external and extra-linguistic factors, ed. by M. C. Jones and E. Esch, 81–110. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Kristiansen, T. and H. Giles
1992 “Compliance-gaining as a function of accent: Public requests in varieties of Danish.” International Journal of Applied Linguistics 2 (1): 17–35.
Kristiansen, T. and S. Grondelaers
(eds)2013Language (De)standardisation in Late Modern Europe: Experimental Studies. Copenhagen: Novus Press.
Kristiansen, T. and L. Vikør
(eds)2006Nordiske språkhaldningar: Ei meiningsmåling [Moderne importord i språka i Norden IV]. Oslo: Novus Forlag.
Kristiansen, T., M. Maegaard and N. Pharao
2018 “Sprogideologi i sociolingvistisk forandring.” In Dansk til det 21. århundrede – sprog og samfund, ed. by T. K. Christensen, C. Fogtmann, T. J. Jensen, M. S. Karrebæk, M. Maegaard, N. Pharao and P. Quist, 223–236. Copenhagen:
1966The Social Stratification of English in New York City. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.
1972Sociolingustic Patterns. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
1984 “Field methods of the project on linguistic change and variation.” In Language in Use, ed. by J. Baugh and J. Sherzer, 28–53. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.
2001Principles of Linguistic Change. Social Factors. Maiden, MA: Blackwell.
1967 “The social psychology of bilingualism.” Journal of Social Issues 23: 91–109.
Lambert, W., R. Hodgson, R. Gardner and S. Fillenbaum
1960 “Evaluational reactions to spoken languages.” Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 60: 44–51.
1934 “Attitudes versus actions.” Social Forces 13: 230–237.
Levinson, S. C.
1983Pragmatics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rosseel, L. and S. Grondelaers
(eds)2019Linguistics Vanguard 5 (s1). Special Issue: Implicitness and Experimental Methods in Language Variation Research.
2005 “Language attitudes, norm and gender. A presentation of the method and results from a language attitudes study.” Acta Linguistica Hafniensia 37: 55–80.
Maegaard, M., T. J. Jensen, T. Kristiansen and J. N. Jørgensen
2013 “Diffusion of language change: Accommodation to a moving target.” Journal of Sociolinguistics 17 (1): 3–36.
2005 “Investigating attitudes to ‘ordinary spoken language’: Reliability and subjective understandings.” Acta Linguistica Hafniensia 37: 171–191.
2011Attityder till det globala i det lokala. Finlanssvenskar om importord [Moderne importord i språka i Norden 12]. Oslo: Novus.
McKenzie, R. M. and E. Carrie
2018 “Implicit-explicit attitudinal discrepancy and the investigation of language attitude change in progress.” Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 39: 830–844.
Mey, J. L.
1993Pragmatics. An Introduction. Oxford: Blackwell.
2007 “Off the shelf or under the counter? On the social dynamics of sound changes.” In Managing Chaos: Strategies for Identifying Change in English, ed. by C. M. Cain and G. Russom, 149–172. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Milroy, J. and L. Milroy
1985Authority in Language. Oxford: Blackwell.
Niedzielski, N. and D. R. Preston
1999/2003Folk Linguistics. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Nyström Höög, C.
2005a “What do people actually think? On scale measuring and personal narratives in attitude studies.” Acta Linguistica Hafniensia 37: 193–215.
Nyström Höög, C.
Man kan lika gärna samarbeta! Svenska åsikter om importord [Moderne importord i språka i Norden 9]. Oslo: Novus.
2009Shake, sjeik eller mjólkurhristingur? Islandske holdninger til engelsk språkpåvirkning [Moderne importord i språka i Norden 11]. Oslo: Novus.
Osgood, C. E., G. Suci and P. Tannenbaum
1957The Measurement of Meaning. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.
Osgood, C. E., W. H. May and M. S. Miron
1975Cross-Cultural Universals of Affective Meaning. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.
1986Pragmatics as Implicitness. An analysis of question particles in Solf Swedish, with implications for the study of passive clauses and the language of persuasion. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley.
2005 “Persuasion as implicit anchoring. The case of collocations.” In Persuasion across genres. A linguistic approach, ed. by H. Halmari and T. Virtanen, 183–212. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Östman, J.-O. and J. Thøgersen
2010 “Language attitudes and the ideology of the Nordic.” International Journal of the Sociology of Language 204: 97–127.
2015 “Applying the Implicit Association Test to language attitudes research.” In Responses to Language Varieties. Variability, Processes and Outcomes, ed. by
A. Prikhodkine and D. R. Preston, 117–136. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
2019 “Implicitness, automaticity, and consciousness in language attitudes research. Are they related and how do we characterize them?” Linguistics Vanguard 5: s1.
Pedersen, I. L.
2010 “The role of social factors in the shaping of language attitudes – with an evaluation of the concept of life style.” International Journal of the Sociology of Language 204: 129–150.
Pharao, N. and T. Kristiansen
2019 “Reflections on the relation between direct/indirect methods and explicit/implicit attitudes.” Linguistics Vanguard 5: s1.
Pharao, N., M. Maegaard, J. S. Møller and T. Kristiansen
2014 “Indexical meanings of [s+] among Copenhagen youth: Social perception of a phonetic variant in different prosodic contexts.” Language in Society 43: 1–31.
Plichta, B. and D. R. Preston
2005 “The /ay/s have it. The perception of /ay/ as a north-south stereotype in United States English.” Acta Linguistica Hafniencia 37: 107–130.
Potter, J. and M. Wetherell
1987Discourse and Social Psychology. Beyond Attitudes and Behaviour. London: Sage.
Preston, D. R.
1989aPerceptual Dialectology. Nonlinguists’ Views of Areal Linguistics. Dordrecht: Foris.
Preston, D. R.
1989b “Standard English spoken here: The geographical loci of linguistic norms.” In Status and Function of Languages and Language Varieties, ed. by U. Ammon, 324–354. Berlin: de Gruyter.
Preston, D. R.
(ed.)1999Handbook of Perceptual Dialectology, vol. 1. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Preston, D. R.
The modes of folklinguistic awareness.” Language Awareness 5: 181–259.
Preston, D. R.
2004 “Folk metalanguage.” In Metalanguage. Social and Ideological Perspectives, ed. by A. Jaworski, N. Coupland and D. Galasiński, 75–101. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Preston, D. R.
2009 “Are you really smart (or stupid, or cute, or ugly, or cool)? Or do you just talk that way?” In Language attitudes, standardization and language change, ed. by M. Maegaard, F. Gregersen, P. Quist and J. N. Jørgensen, 105–129. Oslo: Novus.
Preston, D. R.
2010 “Variation in language regard.” In Variatio delectat:Empirische Evidenzen und theoretische Passungen sprachlicher Variation, für Klaus J. Mattheier zum 65. Geburtstag, ed. by P. Gilles, J. Scharloth and E. Ziegler, 7–27. Bern: Peter Lang.
Preston, D. R.
2015 “Does language regard vary?” In Responses to Language Varieties. Variability, Processes and Outcomes, ed. by A. Prikhodkine and D. R. Preston, 3–36. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Preston, D. R.
2019 “How to trick respondents into revealing implicit attitudes – talk to them.” Linguistics Vanguard 5: s1.
Preston, D. R. & N. Niedzielski
2013 “Approaches to the study of language regard.” In Language (De)standardisation in Late Modern Europe: Experimental Studies, ed. by T. Kristiansen and S. Grondelaers, 287–306. Oslo: Novus Press.
2010 “Speech community.” In Society and Language Use [Handbook of Pragmatics Highlights 7], ed. by J. Jaspers, J.-O. Östman and J. Verschueren, 274–303. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Rosenbaum, Y., E. Nadel, R. L. Cooper and R. L. Cooper and J. A. Fishman
1977 “English on Keren Kayemet Street.” In The Spread of English: The Sociology of English as an Additional Language, ed. by J. A. Fishman, R. L. Cooper and A. W. Conrad, 179–196. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Ryan, E. B. and H. Giles
(eds)1982Attitudes towards Language Variation. Social and Applied Contexts. London: Edward Arnold.
Ryan, E. B., H. Giles and M. Hewstone
1987 “The measurement of language attitudes.” In Sociolinguistics: An International Handbook of Language and Society, ed. by U. Ammon, N. Dittmar and K. J. Mattheier, 1068–1081. Berlin: De Gruyter
Ryan, E. B., H. Giles and R. J. Sebastian
”An integrative perspective for the study of attitudes toward language variation.” In Attitudes towards Language Variation. Social and Applied Contexts, ed. by E. B. Ryan and H. Giles, 1–19. London: Edward Arnold.
1981 “The limits of awareness.” Sociolinguistic Working Paper 4. Southwest Educational Development Laboratory.
2015 “Mixing methods in the study of language attitudes. Theory and application.” In Responses to Language Varieties. Variability, Processes and Outcomes, ed. by A. Prikhodkine and D. R. Preston, 56–84. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
forthc. Livsstilar och individer. En undersökning om språkattityder bland finskspråkiga finländare. Oslo: Novus forlag.
2005 “The quest for objectivity in the study of subjectivity.” Acta Linguistica Hafniensia 37: 217–241.
2007Det er meget godt som det er. .. er det ikke? En undersøgelse af danskernes holdninger til engelsk [Moderne importord i språka i Norden 10]. Oslo: Novus.
Thøgersen, J. and I. L. Pedersen
2012 “Lifestyle.” In Handbook of Pragmatics Online. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
1972 “Sex, covert prestige and linguistic change in urban British English.” Language in Society 1: 179–195.
1986Dialects in Contact. Oxford: Blackwell.
1987 “Pragmatics as a theory of linguistic adaptation.” Working Document
#1. Antwerp: International Pragmatics Association.
2004 “Notes on the role of metapragmatic awareness in language use.” In Metalanguage. Social and Ideological Perspectives, ed. by A. Jaworski, N. Coupland and D. Galasiński, 53–73. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Zahn, C. J. and R. Hopper
1985 “Measuring language attitudes: The speech evaluation instrument.” Journal of Language and Social Psychology 4: 113–999123.