Clinical pragmatics

Michael R Perkins
Table of contents

Clinical pragmatics is a subdiscipline of clinical linguistics, which in turn is a branch of applied linguistics concerned with the ways in which communication may be impaired (see Perkins & Howard (2011) for an overview, and Ball et al. (2008) for more in-depth coverage). The term ‘clinical pragmatics’ will be used here to refer to the study of pragmatic ability in individuals with communication disorders. It covers the description and classification of pragmatic impairments, their elucidation in terms of various pragmatic, linguistic, psychological and neurological theories, and their assessment and treatment.

Full-text access is restricted to subscribers. Log in to obtain additional credentials. For subscription information see Subscription & Price.


Adams, C. & D.V.M. Bishop
1989Conversational characteristics of children with semantic-pragmatic disorder. I: Exchange structure, turntaking, repairs and cohesion. British Journal of Disorders of Communication 24: 211–239. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Adams, C., J. Green, A. Gilchrist & A. Cox
2002Conversational behaviour of children with Asperger syndrome and conduct disorder. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 43(5): 679–690. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Ahlsén, E.
2008Conversational implicature and communication impairment. In M.J. Ball, M.R. Perkins, N. Müller & S. Howard (eds.) The Handbook of Clinical Linguistics: 32–38. Blackwell. DOI logo  BoPGoogle Scholar
Allen, H.A.
1983Do positive and negative symptom subtypes of schizophrenia show qualitative differences in language production? Psychological Medicine 13: 787–797. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Almor, A., D. Kempler, M.C. Macdonald, E.S. Andersen & L.K. Tyler
1999Why do Alzheimer patients have difficulty with pronouns? Working memory, semantics, and reference in comprehension and production in Alzheimer's disease. Brain and Language 67: 202–227. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
American Psychiatrist Association
1994Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM–IV) (4th edition). American Psychiatric Association. Google Scholar
Andreasen, N.C.
1979Thought, language, and communication disorders. I. Clinical assessment, definition of terms, and evaluation of their reliability. Archives of General Psychiatry 36: 1315–1323. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Audet, L.R. & D.N. Ripich
1994Psychiatric disorders and discourse problems. In D.N. Ripich & N.A. Creaghead (eds.) School Discourse Problems (2nd Edition): 191–227. Singular. Google Scholar
Ball, M.J., M.R. Perkins, N. Müller & S. Howard
(Eds.) 2008The Handbook of Clinical Linguistics. Blackwell. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Bara, B.G.
2000Neuropragmatics: brain and communication. Brain and Language 71: 10–14. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Bara, B.G., F.M. Bosco, & M. Bucciarelli
1999Developmental pragmatics in normal and abnormal children. Brain and Language 68: 507–528. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Barnes, M.A. & M. Dennis
1998Discourse after early-onset hydrocephalus: core deficits in children of average intelligence. Brain and Language 61: 309–334. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Baron-Cohen, S.
1989Do autistic children have obsessions and compulsions? British Journal of Clinical Psychology 28: 193–200. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
1995Mindblindness: An Essay on Autism and Theory of Mind. MIT Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Bates, E., D. Thal & B. Macwhinney
1991A functionalist approach to language and its implications for assessment and intervention. In T.M. Gallagher (ed.) Pragmatics of Language: Clinical Practice Issues: 133–161. Chapman & Hall. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Bates, E., B. Wulfeck, A. Hernandez & E. Andanova
1996The Competition Model: implications for language processing, language development and language breakdown. In B. Kokinov (ed.) Perspectives on Cognitive Science, vol. 2: 7–72. New Bulgarian University. Google Scholar
Benjamin, L., A. Debinski, D. Fletcher, C. Hedger, M. Mealings & A. Stewart-Scott
1989The use of the Bethesda Conversational Skills Profile in closed head injury. In V. Anderson & M. ­bailey (eds.) Theory and Function: Bridging the Gap. Proceedings of the Fourteenth Annual Brain Impairment Conference: 57–65. Australian Society for the Study of Brain Impairment. Google Scholar
Bihrle, A.M., H.H. Brownell, J.A. Powelson & H. Gardner
1986Comprehension of humorous and non-humorous materials by left and right brain-damaged patients. Brain and Cognition 5: 399–411. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Bishop, D.V.M.
1998Development of the Children's Communication Checklist (CCC): A method for assessing qualitative aspects of communicative impairment in children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 39(6): 879–891. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
2000What's so special about Asperger's disorder? The need for further explanation of the borderlands of autism. In A. Klin, F. Volkmar & S. Sparrow (eds.) Asperger’s Syndrome: 254–277. Guilford Press. Google Scholar
Bishop, D.V.M. & C. Adams
1992Comprehension problems in children with specific language impairment – literal and inferential meaning. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 35: 119–129. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Bissett, J.D. & A.M. Novak
1995Drawing inferences from emotional situations: Left versus right hemisphere deficit. Clinical Aphasiology 23: 217–225. Google Scholar
Blank, M., M. Gessner & A. Esposito
1979Language without communication: A case study. Journal of Child Language 6: 329–352. DOI logo  BoPGoogle Scholar
Bloch, S.
2005Co-constructing meaning in acquired speech disorders: word and letter repetition in the construction of turns. In K. Richards & P. Seedhouse (eds.) Applying Conversation Analysis: 38–55. Palgrave Macmillan. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Brady, M., L. Armstrong & C. Mackenzie
2005Further evidence on topic use following right hemisphere brain damage: procedural and descriptive discourse. Aphasiology 19(8): 731–747. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Brinton, B. & M. Fujiki
1994Ability of institutionalized and community-based adults with retardation to respond to questions in an interview context. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 37(2): 369–377. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Bryan, K.L.
1988Assessment of language disorders after right hemisphere damage. British Journal of Disorders of Communication 23: 111–125. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
1989The Right Hemisphere Language Battery. Far Communications. Google Scholar
Caplan, R.
1996Discourse deficits in childhood schizophrenia. In J. Beitchman, N. Cohen, M. ­konstantareas & R. Tannock (eds.) Language, Learning and Behavior Disorders: Developmental, Biological and Clinical Perspectives: 156–177. Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar
Carlomagno, S.
1994Pragmatic Approaches to Aphasia Therapy. Whurr. Google Scholar
Caspari, I. & S.R. Parkinson
2000Effects of memory impairment on discourse. Journal of Neurolinguistics 13(1): 15–36. DOI logo  BoPGoogle Scholar
Chapman, S.B., A.P. Highley & J.L. Thompson
1998Discourse in fluent aphasia and Alzheimer's disease: linguistic and pragmatic considerations. Journal of Neurolinguistics 11: 55–78. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Chelune, G., W. Ferguson, R. Koon & T. Dickey
1986Frontal lobe disinhibition in attention deficit disorder. Child Psychiatry and Human Development 16: 221–234. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Clark, H.H.
1996Using Language. Cambridge University Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Coelho, C.A.
1999Discourse analysis in traumatic brain injury. In S. Mcdonald, L. Togher & C. Code (eds.) Communication Disorders Following Traumatic Brain Injury: 55–79. Psychology Press. Google Scholar
Coggins, T.E., T. Friet & T. Morgan
1998Analysing narrative productions in older school-age children and adolescents with fetal alcohol syndrome: an experimental tool for clinical applications. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics 12(3): 221–236. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Collins, S., I. Markova & J. Murphy
1997Bringing conversations to a close: the management of closings in interactions between AAC users and ‘natural’ speakers. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics 11(6): 467–493. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Craig, H.K.
1995Pragmatic impairments. In P. Fletcher & B. Macwhinney (eds.) The Handbook of Child Language: 623–640. Blackwell. Google Scholar
Crystal, D.
1992Profiling Linguistic Disability (2nd edition). Whurr. Google Scholar
1997A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics (4th edition). Blackwell. Google Scholar
Damico, J.S.
1985Clinical discourse analysis: A functional approach to language assessment. In C.S. Simon (ed.) Communication Skills and Classroom Success: 165–204. Taylor and Francis. Google Scholar
Davis, G.A. & M.J. Wilcox
1985Adult Aphasia Rehabilitation: Applied Pragmatics. College Hill Press. Google Scholar
Dewart, H. & S. Summers
1988The Pragmatics Profile of Everyday Communication Skills. NFER-Nelson. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Dewart, H.
1995The Pragmatics Profile of Everyday Communication Skills in Pre-school and School-aged Children. NFER-Nelson. Google Scholar
Dipper, L.T., K.L. Bryan & J. Tyson
1997Bridging inference and Relevance Theory: an account of right hemisphere inference. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics 11(3): 213–228. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Donahue, M.L.
1994Differences in classroom discourse styles of students with learning disabilities. In D.N. Ripich & N.A. Creaghead (eds.) School Discourse Problems (2nd edition): 229–261. Singular. Google Scholar
Dronkers, N.F., C.A. Ludy & B.B. Redfern
1998Pragmatics in the absence of verbal language: descriptions of a severe aphasic and a language-deprived adult. Journal of Neurolinguistics 11: 179–190. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Fisher, S. & A.D. Todd
(eds.) 1983The Social Organization of Doctor-Patient Communication. ­Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington DC.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Fletcher, P.C., F. Happe, U. Frith, S.C. Baker, R.J. Dolan, R.S.J. Frackowiak & C.D. Frith
1995Other minds in the brain: a functional imaging study of ‘theory of mind’ in story comprehension. Cognition 57: 109–128. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Friedland, D. & N. Miller
1998Conversation analysis of communication breakdown after closed head injury. Brain Injury 12(1): 1–14. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Frith, U.
1989Autism: Explaining the Enigma. Blackwell. Google Scholar
Garcia, L.J., L. Metthe, J. Paradis & Y. Joanette
2001Relevance is in the eye and ear of the beholder: an example from populations with a neurological impairment. Aphasiology 15(1): 17–38. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Goodwin, C.
2000Gesture, aphasia, and interaction. In D. Mcneill (ed.) Language and Gesture: 84–98. Cambridge University Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Griffith, P.L., D.N. Ripich & S.L. Dastoli
1986Story structure, cohesion, and propositions in story recalls by learning-disabled and nondisabled children. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 15(6): 539–555. DOI logo  BoPGoogle Scholar
Grodzinsky, Y.
2000The neurology of syntax: language use without Broca’s area. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23(1): 1–71. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Gutfreund, M., M. Harrison & G. Wells
1989Bristol Language Development Scales: Manual. NFER-Nelson. Google Scholar
Happe, F.G.E.
1991The autobiographical writings of three Asperger syndrome adults: Problems of interpretation and implications for theory. In U. Frith (ed.) Autism and Asperger Syndrome: 207–242. Cambridge University Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Heeschen, C. & Schegloff, E.A.
2003Aphasic agrammatism as interactional artifact and achievement. In C. Goodwin (ed.) Conversation and Brain Damage: 231–282. Oxford University Press. Google Scholar
Hobson, R.P., J. Ouston & A. Lee
1989Naming emotion in faces and voices: Abilities and disabilities in autism and mental retardation. British Journal of Developmental Psychology 7: 237–250. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Holland, A.L.
1980Communicative Abilities in Daily Living. University Park Press. Google Scholar
1982Observing functional communication of aphasic adults. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 47: 50–56. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Holtgraves, T.
1999Comprehending indirect replies: when and how are their conveyed meanings activated? Journal of Memory and Language 41: 519–540. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Howard, S.J.
1993Articulatory constraints on a phonological system: a case study of cleft palate speech. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics 7(4): 299–317. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Hudson, L.J. & B.E. Murdoch
1992Spontaneously generated narratives of children treated for posterior fossa tumour. Aphasiology 6(6): 549–566. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Joanette, Y. & A.I. Ansaldo
1999Clinical note: acquired pragmatic impairments and aphasia. Brain and Language 68: 529–534. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Joanette, Y. & H.H. Brownell
(eds.) 1990Discourse Ability and Brain Damage: Theoretical and Empirical Perspectives. Springer-Verlag. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Johnson-Laird, P.N.
1995Mental models, deductive reasoning, and the brain. In M.S. Gazzaniga (ed.) The Cognitive Neurosciences: 999–1008. MIT Press. Google Scholar
Kasher, A.
1984Pragmatics and the modularity of mind. Journal of Pragmatics 8: 539–557. DOI logo  BoPGoogle Scholar
Kasher, A., G. Batori, N. Soroker, D. Graves & E. Zaidel
1999Effects of right- and left-hemisphere damage on understanding conversational implicatures. Brain and Language 68: 566–590. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Kegl, J.A. & H. Poizner
1998Shifting the burden to the interlocutor: compensation for pragmatic deficits in signers with Parkinson's disease. Journal of Neurolinguistics 11: 137–152. DOI logo  BoPGoogle Scholar
Kretschmer, R.R. & L.W. Kretschmer
1994Discourse and Hearing Impairment. In D.N. Ripich & N.A. Creaghead (eds.) School Discourse Problems (2nd edition): 263–296. Singular. Google Scholar
Leinonen, E. & D. Kerbel
1999Relevance theory and pragmatic impairment. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders 34(4): 367–390. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Lesser, R. & L. Algar
1995Towards combining the cognitive neuropsychological and the pragmatic in aphasia therapy. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation 5: 67–92. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Lesser, R. & L. Milroy
1993Linguistics and Aphasia: Psycholinguistic and Pragmatic Aspects of Intervention. Longman.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Letts, S.
1985Linguistic interaction in the clinic: how do therapists do therapy? Child language Teaching and Therapy 1: 321–331. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Levelt, W.J.M.
1989Speaking: From Intention to Articulation. MIT Press. Google Scholar
Loveland, K.A., S.H. Landry, S.O. Hughes, S.K. Hall & R. Mcevoy
1988Speech acts and the pragmatic deficits of autism. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 31: 593–604. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Loveland, K.A., R. Mcevoy, B. Tunali & M.L. Kelley
1990Narrative story telling in autism and Down's syndrome. British Journal of Developmental Psychology 8: 9–23. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Lovett, M.W., M. Dennis & J.E. Newman
1986Making reference: the cohesive use of pronouns in the narrative discourse of hemidecorticate adolescents. Brain and Language 29: 224–251. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Lueger, R. & K. Gill
1990Frontal lobe cognitive dysfunction in conduct disorder adolescents. Journal of Clinical Psychology 46: 696–706. Google Scholar
Mcdonald, S.
1993aPragmatic language loss after closed head injury: inability to meet the informational needs of the listener. Brain and Language 44: 28–46. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
1993bViewing the brain sideways? Frontal versus right hemisphere explanations of non-aphasic language disorders. Aphasiology 7(6): 535–549. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
1999Exploring the process of inference generation in sarcasm: A review of normal and clinical studies. Brain and Language 68: 486–506. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Mcdonald, S. & S. Pearce
1996Clinical insights into pragmatic theory: frontal lobe deficits and sarcasm. Brain and Language 53: 81–104. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
1998Requests that overcome listener reluctance: impairment associated with executive dysfunction in brain injury. Brain and Language 61: 88–104. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Mctear, M.F. & G. Conti-Ramsden
1992Pragmatic Disability in Children. Whurr. Google Scholar
Meilijson, S.R., A. Kasher & A. Elizur
2004Language performance in chronic schizophrenia: a pragmatic approach. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research 47(3): 695–713. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Merrison, S. & A.J. Merrison
2005Repair in speech and language therapy interaction: investigating pragmatic language impairment of children. Child Language Teaching and Therapy 21(2): 191–211. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Mills, A.E.
1993Language acquisition and development with sensory impairment: blind children. In G. Blanken, J. Dittmann, H. Grimm, J.C. Marshall & C.-W. Wallesch (eds.) Linguistic Disorders and Pathologies: An International Handbook: 679–687. Walter de Gruyter. Google Scholar
Miranda, A.E., A. Mccabe & L.S. Bliss
1998Jumping around and leaving things out: a profile of the narrative abilities of children with specific language impairment. Applied Psycholinguistics 19: 647–667. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Mitchley, N.J., J. Barber, J.M. Gray, D.N. Brooks & M.G. Livingston
1998Comprehension of irony in schizophrenia. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 3(2): 127–138. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Mogford-Bevan, K.
1993Language acquisition and development with sensory impairment: hearing-impaired children. In G. Blanken, J. Dittmann, H. Grimm, J.C. Marshall & C.-W. Wallesch (eds.) Linguistic Disorders and Pathologies: An International Handbook: 660–679. Walter de Gruyter. Google Scholar
Molloy, R., H.H. Brwonell & H. Gardner
1990Discourse comprehension by right-hemisphere stroke patients: deficits of prediction and revision. In Y. Joanette & H.H. Brownell (eds.): 113–130. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Morris, C.W.
1938Foundations of the theory of signs. In O. Neurath, R. Carnap & C. Morris (eds.) International Encyclopedia of Unified Science: 77–138. University of Chicago Press. Google Scholar
Morris-Stewart, S.L., P.C. Williamson, W.C. Corning, S.P. Kutcher, W.G. Snow & H. Merskey
1992Frontal and non-frontal lobe neuropsychological test performance and clinical symptomatology in schizophrenia. Psychological medicine 22: 353–359. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Ninio, A., P. Wheeler, C.E. Snow, B.A. Pan & P.R. Rollins
1991INCA-A: Inventory of Communicative Acts – Abridged. Harvard Graduate School of Education. Google Scholar
Oelschlaeger, M.L. & J.S. Damico
1998Joint productions as a conversational strategy in aphasia. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics 12(6): 459–480. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Ozonoff, S. & J.N. Miller
1996An exploration of right-hemisphere contributions to the pragmatic impairments of autism. Brain and Language 52: 411–434. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Paradis, M.
1998aThe other side of language: pragmatic competence. Journal of Neurolinguistics 11: 1–10. DOI logo  BoPGoogle Scholar
(ed.) 1998bPragmatics in Neurogenic Communication Disorders. Journal of Neurolinguistics 11(1/2) (Special Issue). DOI logo  BoPGoogle Scholar
2003Cerebral representation of language. In J. Verschueren, J.-O. Östman, J. Blommaert & C. Bulcaen (eds.) Handbook of Pragmatics: 1–20. John Benjamins. DOI logo  BoPGoogle Scholar
Penn, C.
1985The profile of communicative appropriateness. The South African Journal of Communication Disorders 32: 18–23. Google Scholar
1988The profiling of syntax and pragmatics in aphasia. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics 2: 179–208. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
1999Pragmatic assessment and therapy for persons with brain damage: What have clinicians gleaned in two decades? Brain and Language 68: 535–552. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Perkins, L.
1995Applying conversation analysis to aphasia: clinical implications and analytic issues. Aphasiology 30(3): 372–383. Google Scholar
Perkins, L., A. Whitworth & R. Lesser
1997Conversation Analysis Profile for People with Cognitive Impairments (CAPPCI). Whurr. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Perkins, M.R.
1998Is pragmatics epiphenomenal?: evidence from communication disorders. Journal of Pragmatics 29: 291–311. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
2000The scope of pragmatic disability: a cognitive approach. In N. Müller (ed.) Pragmatics and Clinical Applications: 7–28. John Benjamins. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
2001Compensatory strategies in SLI. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics 15: 67–71. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
2005Pragmatic ability and disability as emergent phenomena. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics 19(5): 367–377. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
2007Pragmatic Impairment. Cambridge University Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
2010Pragmatic impairment. In J.S. Damico, N. Müller & M.J. Ball (eds.) The Handbook of Language and Speech Disorders: 227–246. Wiley-Blackwell. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Perkins, M.R., R. Body & M. Parker
1995Closed head injury: assessment and remediation of topic bias and repetitiveness. In M.R. Perkins & S.J. Howard (eds.) Case Studies in Clinical Linguistics: 293–320. Whurr. Google Scholar
Perkins, M.R., S. Dobbinson, J. Boucher, S. Bol & P. Bloom
2006Lexical knowledge and lexical use in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Perkins, M.R. & S. Howard
2011Clinical linguistics. In J. Simpson (ed.) Routledge Handbook of Applied Linguistics: 111–123Routledge. Google Scholar
Perkins, M.R. & R. Varley
1996A Machine-Readable Corpus of Aphasic Discourse. University of Sheffield: Department of Human Communication Sciences/Institute for Language, Speech and Hearing (ILASH). Google Scholar
Prinz, P. & F. Weiner
1987The Pragmatics Screening Test. Psychological Corporation. Google Scholar
Prutting, C.A. & D.M. Kirchner
1983Applied pragmatics. In T.M. Gallagher & C.A. Prutting (eds.) Pragmatic Assessment and Intervention Issues in Language: 29–64. College Hill Press. Google Scholar
1987A clinical appraisal of the pragmatic aspects of language. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders 52: 105–119. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Ramig, L.O.
1992The role of phonation in speech intelligibility: a review and preliminary data from patients with Parkinson's disease. In R.D. Kent (ed.) Intelligibility in Speech Disorders: Theory, Measurement and Management: 119–155. John benjamins. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Rattenbury, K., M.R. Perkins & V. Stojanovik
in press). Conversational success in Williams syndrome: communication in the face of cognitive and linguistic limitations. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics.
Reilly, J., E.S. Klima & U. Bellugi
1990Once more with feeling: affect and language in atypical populations. Development and Psychopathology 2: 367–391. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Reilly, J.S., E. Bates & V. Marchman
1998Narrative discourse in children with early focal brain injury. Brain and Language 61(3): 335–375. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Rein, R.P. & K.T. Kernan
1989The functional use of verbal perseverations by adults who are mentally retarded. Education and Training in Mental Retardation 24: 381–389. Google Scholar
Rhys, C.S.
2001Interlocutor discourse practices in response to the word finding problems of an Alzheimer's patient. Stem-, Spraak- en Taalpathologie 10(4): 233–247. Google Scholar
Ribeiro, B.T.
1994Coherence in Psychotic Discourse. Oxford University Press. Google Scholar
Ripich, D., B.D. Carpenter & E.W. Ziol
2000Conversational cohesion patterns in men and women with Alzheimer's disease: a longitudinal study. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders 35(1): 49–64. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Roberts, R.M. & R.J. Kreuz
1993Nonstandard discourse and its coherence. Discourse Processes 16: 451–464. DOI logo  BoPGoogle Scholar
Ross, E.D., R.D. Thompson & J. Yenkosky
1997Lateralization of affective prosody in brain and the callosal integration of hemispheric language functions. Brain and Language 56: 27–54. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Roth, F.P. & N.J. Spekman
1984aAssessing the pragmatic abilities of children: Part 1. Organizational framework and assessment parameters. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders 49: 2–11. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
1984bAssessing the pragmatic abilities of children: Part 2. Guidelines, considerations, and specific evaluation procedures. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders 49: 12–17. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Russell, J.
(ed.) 1997Autism as an Executive Disorder. Oxford University Press. Google Scholar
Ryan, B.P.
2000Speaking rate, conversational speech acts, interruption, and linguistic complexity of 20 pre-school stuttering and non-stuttering children and their mothers. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics 14(1): 25–51. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Schegloff, E.A.
1999Discourse, pragmatics, conversation, analysis. Discourse Studies 1(4): 405–435. DOI logo  BoPGoogle Scholar
Schelletter, C. & E. Leinonen
2003Normal and language-impaired children's use of reference: syntactic versus pragmatic processing. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics 17(4/5): 335–343. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Shimamura, A.P.
1995Memory and frontal lobe function. In M.S. Gazzaniga (ed.) The Cognitive Neurosciences: 803–813. MIT Press. Google Scholar
Shulman, B.
1985Test of Pragmatic Skills. Communication Skill Builders. Google Scholar
Simmons-Mackie, N. & J. Damico
1997Reformulating the definition of compensatory strategies in aphasia. Aphasiology 11: 761–781. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Sinclair, J.M. & R.M. Coulthard
1975Towards an Analysis of Discourse. Oxford University Press. Google Scholar
Sinclair, M.
1995Fitting pragmatics into the mind: some issues in mentalist pragmatics. Journal of Pragmatics 23: 509–539. DOI logo  BoPGoogle Scholar
Snow, D.
1996A linguistic account of a developmental, semantic-pragmatic disorder: evidence from a case study. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics 10(4): 281–298. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Snow, P. & J. Douglas
1999Discourse rehabilitation following traumatic brain injury. In S. ­mcdonald, L. Togher & C. Code (eds.) Communication Disorders Following Traumatic Brain Injury: ­271–320. Psychology Press. Google Scholar
Snyder, L.S. & D.M. Downey
1991The language-reading relationship in normal and reading-disabled children. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 34: 129–140. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Sperber, D. & D. Wilson
1995Relevance: Communication and Cognition (2nd edition). Blackwell.  MetBibGoogle Scholar
2002Pragmatics, modularity and mind-reading. Mind and Language 17: 3–23. DOI logo  BoPGoogle Scholar
Stemmer, B.
1999aAn on-line interview with Noam Chomsky: On the nature of pragmatics and related issues. Brain and Language 68: 393–401. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
(ed.) 1999bBrain and Language 68, 1: Special Issue on Pragmatics. Academic Press. Google Scholar
2008Neuropragmatics. In M.J. Ball, M.R. Perkins, N. Müller & S. Howard (eds.) The Handbook of Clinical Linguistics: 61–78. Blackwell. DOI logo  BoPGoogle Scholar
Stemmer, B., F. Giroux & Y. Joanette
1994Production and evaluation of requests by right hemisphere brain-damaged individuals. Brain and Language 47: 1–31. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Stemmer, B. & Y. Joanette
1998The interpretation of narrative discourse of brain-damaged individuals within the framework of a multi-level discourse model. In M. Beeman & C. Chiarello (eds.) Right Hemisphere language Comprehension: Perspectives from Cognitive Neuroscience: 329–348. Erlbaum. Google Scholar
Stemmer, B. & P.W. Schönle
2000Neuropragmatics in the twenty-first century. Brain and Language 71: 233–236. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Stojanovik, V., M.R. Perkins & S. Howard
2004Williams syndrome and specific language impairment do not support claims for developmental double dissociations and innate modularity. Journal of Neurolinguistics 17: 403–424. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Sudhalter, V. & R.C. Belser
2001Conversational characteristics of children with Fragile X syndrome: tangential language. American Journal on Mental Retardation 106: 389–400. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Surian, L., S. Baron-Cohen & H.V.D. Lely
1996Are children with autism deaf to Gricean maxims? Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 1(1): 55–71. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Tannock, R. & R. Schachar
1996Executive dysfunction as an underlying mechanism of behavior and language problems in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. In J. Beitchman, N. Cohen, M. Konstantareas & R. Tannock (eds.) Language, Learning and Behavior Disorders: Developmental, Biological and Clinical Perspectives: 128–155. Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar
Tarling, K., M.R. Perkins & V. Stojanovik
2006Conversational success in Williams syndrome: communication in the face of cognitive and linguistic limitations. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics 20: 583–590. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Tenyi, T., R. Herold, I.M. Szili & M. Trixler
2002Schizophrenics show a failure in the decoding of violations of conversational implicatures. Psychopathology 35: 25–27. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Togher, L., S. Mcdonald & C. Code
1999Communication problems following traumatic brain injury. In S. Mcdonald, L. Togher, C. Code (eds.) Communication Disorders Following Traumatic Brain Injury: 1–18. Psychology Press. Google Scholar
Tompkins, C.A., C.G.R. Bloise, M.L. Timko & A. Baumgaertner
1994Working memory and inference revision in brain-damaged and normally aging adults. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 37: 896–912. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Tompkins, C.A., M.T. Lehman-Blake, A. Baumgaertner & W. Fassbinder
2001Mechanisms of discourse comprehension impairment after right hemisphere brain damage: suppression in inferential ambiguity resolution. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 44: 400–415. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Trautman, L.S., E.C. Healey, T.A. Brown & S. Jermano
1999A further analysis of narrative skills of children who stutter. Journal of Communication Disorders 32(5): 297–315. Google Scholar
Ulatowska, H.K., L. Allard & S.B. Chapman
1990Narrative and procedural discourse in aphasia. In Y. Joannette & H.H. Brownell (eds.): 180–198. Google Scholar
Varley, R. & M. Siegal
2000Evidence for cognition without grammar from causal reasoning and ‘theory of mind’ in an agrammatic aphasic patient. Current Biology 10: 723–726. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Wertz, R.T., C.R. Henschel, L.L. Auther, J.R. Ashford & H.S. Kirshner
1998Affective prosodic disturbance subsequent to right hemisphere stroke: a clinical application. Journal of Neurolinguistics 11: 89–102. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Whitworth, A., L. Perkins & R. Lesser
1997Conversation Analysis Profile for People with Aphasia (CAPPA). Whurr. Google Scholar
Wilcox, M.J. & G.A. Davis
1977Speech act analysis of aphasic communication in individual and group settings. In R.H. Brookshire (ed.) Clinical Aphasiology Conference Proceedings: 166–174. BRK Publishers. Google Scholar
Wilkinson, R.
2008Conversation analysis and communication disorders. In M.J. Ball, M.R. Perkins, N. Müller & S. Howard (eds.), The Handbook of Clinical Linguistics: 92–106. Blackwell. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Willcox, A. & K. Mogford-Bevan
1995Conversational disability: assessment and remediation. In M.R. Perkins & S.J. Howard (eds.) Case Studies in Clinical Linguistics: 146–178. Whurr. Google Scholar
Wilson, D.
2005New directions for research on pragmatics and modularity. Lingua 115: 1129–1146. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Wilson, D. & D. Sperber
1991Pragmatics and modularity. In S. Davis (ed.) Pragmatics: A Reader: 583–595. Oxford University Press. [First published in A.M. Farley, P.T. Farley & K.-E. Mccullough (eds.) 1986. The Chicago Linguistic Society Parasession on Pragmatics and Grammatical Theory. The Chicago Linguistic Society.].  BoPGoogle Scholar
Winner, E., H. Brownell, F. Happe, A. Blum & D. Pincus
1998Distinguishing lies from jokes: theory of mind deficits and discourse interpretation in right hemisphere brain-damaged patients. Brain and Language 62: 89–106. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Wootton, A.J.
1989Speech to and from a severely retarded young Down's syndrome child. In M. Beveridge, G. Conti-Ramsden & I. Leudar (eds.) Language and Communication in Mentally Handicapped People: 157–184. Chapman Hall. Google Scholar
1999An investigation of delayed echoing in a child with autism. First Language 19(3): 359–381. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Wykes, T. & J. Leff
1982Disordered speech: Differences between manics and schizophrenics. Brain and Language 15: 117–124. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Yont, K.M., C.E. Snow & L. Vernon-Feagans
2003Is chronic otitis media associated with differences in parental input at 12 months of age? An analysis of joint attention and directives. Applied Psycholinguistics 24: 581–602.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Ziatas, K., K. Durkin & C. Pratt
2003Differences in assertive speech acts produced by children with autism, Asperger syndrome, specific language impairment, and normal development. Development and Psychopathology 15: 73–94. DOI logoGoogle Scholar