The study of language by means of computers has become fairly mainstream since the turn of the millenium. On the one hand, very large amounts of language data have become available which can be analyzed in various ways, ranging from simple word searches to parsing and statistical modeling as well as signal processing and video analysis. On the other hand, the increasing demand for natural language applications such as machine translation and speech interfaces is pushing development towards steady increases in quality and usefulness. Technical advances in building interactive systems have brought forward the need for studying language not only as a means of conveying simple commands and propositions, but also for expressing affections, controlling the interaction, and creating a shared understanding and social bonds among the interlocutors.
Aleven, V., I. Roll, B.M. Mclaren, E.J. Ryu and K.R. Koedinger
2005“An architecture to combine meta-cognitive and cognitive tutoring: Pilot testing the Help Tutor.”Proceedings of 12th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, 17–24. Amsterdam: IOS.
1983“Recognizing intentions from natural language utterances.” In Computational Models of Discourse, ed. by M. Brady and R. Berwick, 107–166. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
1986“Plans, goals and language.”Proceedings of the IEEE 74: 939–947.
Allen, J.F. and C. Perrault
1980“Analyzing intention in utterances.”Artificial Intelligence 15: 143–178.
Allgayer, J., K. Harbush, A. Kobsa, C. Reddig, N. Reithinger and D. Schmauks
1989“XTRA: A natural language access system for expert systems.”International Journal of Man-Machine Studies 31(2): 161–195.
1976Linguistic Communication as Action and Cooperation [Gothenburg Monographs in Linguistics 2]. Department of Linguistics, University of Göteborg. BoP
1978“On the analysis of communicative action.” In The Structure of Action, ed. by M. Brenner, 168–191. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. BoP
1994“Obligations and options in dialogue.”Think Quarterly 3: 9–18.
Allwood, J., L. Cerrato, K. Jokinen, C. Navarretta and P. Paggio
2007“The MUMIN Coding Scheme for the annotation of feedback, Turn Management and Sequencing.”LRE Journal 41 (3–4): 273–287.
Allwood, J., D. Traumand and K. Jokinen
2000“Cooperation, dialogue, and ethics.”International Journal for Human-Computer Studies 53: 871–914.
André, E. and C. Pelachaud
2010“Interacting with embodied conversational agents.” In Speech Technology: Theory and Applications, ed. by K. Jokinen and F. Cheng, 123–150. New York: Springer.
Andriessen, J., K. De Smedt and M. Zock
1996“Discourse planning: Empirical research and computer models.” In Computational Psycholinguistics: AI and Connectionist Models of Human Language Processing, ed. by A. Dijkstra and K. De Smedt, 247–278. London: Taylor and Francis.
1985“Planning english sentences.”. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Aust, H., M. Oerder, F. Seide and V. Steinbiss
1995“The philips automatic train timetable information system.”Speech Communication 17: 249–262.
1962How to do Things with Words. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Barr, A. and E.A. Feigenbaum
1981The Handbook of Artificial Intelligence. Los Altos, CA: Kaufmann.
Bavelas, J. and N. Chovil
2000“Visible acts of meaning. An integrated message model of language in face-to-face dialogue.”Journal of Language and Social Psychology 19(2): 163–194. BoP
Beaugrande, R.-A. De and W.U. Dressler
1981Introduction to Text Analysis. London: Longman.
Black, W., J. Allwood, H. Bunt, F. Dols, C. Donzella, G. Ferrari, J. Gallagher, R. Haidan, B. Imlah, K. Jokinen, J.-M. Lancel, J. Nivre, G. Sabah and T. Wachtel
1991“A Pragmatics based language understanding system.”Proceedings of the ESPRIT Conference
1968“Natural language input for a computer problem-solving system.” In Semantic Information Processing, ed. by M. Minsky, 135–215. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. BoP
1987“User modeling in person-machine conversation: A Computational Approach.”Proceedings of COGNITIVA-87 87: 377–382.
1990“DIT – Dynamic interpretation in text and dialogue.” In Papers from the Second Symposium on Languages and Logic, ed. by L. Kálmán and L. Polós, 67–104. Budapest: Akademiai Kiadó.
1990 2006 “Dimensions in dialogue act annotation.” In
Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2006)
, 919–924. Genoa.
Bunt, H.C., J. Alexandersson, J.-W. Choe, A.C. Fang, K. Hasida, V. Petukhova, A. Popescu-Belis and D. Traum
2012“ISO 24617–2: A semantically-based standard for dialogue annotation.” In
Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2012)
, 430–437. Istanbul.
1983“Tracking user goals in an information-seeking environment.”Proceedings AAAI 83: 59–63.
1988“Modeling the user's plans and goals.”Computational Linguistics 14: 23–37.
1990Plan Recognition in Natural Language Dialogue. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
1990“Generating explanatory discourse.” In Current Research in Natural Language Generation, ed. by R. Dale, C. Mellish and M. Zock, 75–101. London: Academic Press.
1989“KNOME: modeling what the user knows in Uc.” In User Modeling in Dialogue Systems, ed. by A. Kobsa and W. Wahlster, 74–107. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
2000“MIMIC: An adaptive mixed initiative spoken dialogue system for information queries.”Proceedings of the 6th Conference on Applied Natural Language Processing (ANLP)
1992“Generating referring expressions in a multimodal environment.” In New concepts in Natural Language Generation, ed. by R. Dale, E. Hovy, D. Rösner and O. Stock, 247–262. London: Pinter.
Clark, H.H. and E.F. Schaefer
1989“Contributing to discourse.”Cognitive Science 13: 259–294.
Clark, H.H. and D. Wilkes-Gibbs
1986“Referring as a collaborative process.”Cognition 22: 1–39. BoP
Cohen, P. and C. Perrault
1979“Elements of a plan-based theory of speech acts.”Cognitive Science 3: 177–212.
Cohen, P.R. and H.J. Levesque
1990“Persistence, intention, and commitment.” In Intentions in Communication, ed. by P.R. Cohen, J. Morgan and M.E. Pollack, 33–69. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. BoP
Cohen, P.R. and H.J. Levesque
1991“Teamwork.”Nous 25(4): 487–512.
Cohen, P., J. Morgan and M. Pollack
(eds)1990Intentions in Communication. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. BoP
1993Artificial Intelligence: A Philosophical Introduction. Oxford: Blackwell.
Core, M.G. and J.F. Allen
1997“Coding dialogs with the DAMSL annotation scheme.”AAAI Fall Symposium on Communicative Action in Humans and Machines
. Boston, MA.
Curto, S., A.C. Mendesand and L. Coheur
2011“Exploring linguistically-rich patterns for question generation.”Proceedings of the UCNLG+Eval: Language Generation and Evaluation Workshop
, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, July 31, 2011: 33–38. Assocation for Computational Linguistics.
Dai, W. and R. Cohen
2003“Dynamic personalized TV recommendation system.”Proceedings of the UM 2003 Workshop on Personalization in Future TV
, Pittsburgh, US: 12–21.
Dale, R., E. Hovy, D. Rösner and O. Stock
(eds)1992Aspects of Automated Natural Language Generation. Berlin: Springer.
Dale, R., C. Mellish and M. Zock
(eds)1990aCurrent Research in Natural Language Generation. London: Academic Press.
Dale, R., C. Mellish and M. Zock
1990b“Introduction.” In Current Research in Natural Language Generation, ed. by R. Dale, C. Mellish and M. Zock, 1–15. London: Academic Press. BoP
1989“Minds, Machines and Searle.”Journal of Theoretical and Experimental Artificial Intelligence 1: 5–25.
Hayes, P., S. Harnad, D. Perlis and N. Block
1992“Virtual symposium on the virtual mind.”Minds and Machines 2: 217–238.
Heeman, P.A. and J.F. Allen
1997“Intonational boundaries, speech repairs, and discourse markers: Modeling spoken dialog.”Proceedings of 35th ACL and 8th EACL: 254–261.
(ed)1988Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction. New York: Elsevier Science Publishers.
1979“Coherence and coreference.”Cognitive Science 3(1): 67–90. BoP
Hobbs, J.R., M. Stickel, D. Appelt and P. Martin
1990Interpretation as Abduction. SRI Technical Note 499. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International.
Horacek, H. and M. Zock
(eds)1993New Concepts in Natural Language Generation. London: Pinter.
1988Generating Natural Language under Pragmatic Constraints. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. BoP
1988 1990 “Unresolved problems in paragraph planning.” In Current Research in Natural Language Generation, ed. by R. Dale, C. Mellish and M. Zock, 17–45. London: Academic Press.
1988 1991 “Approaches to the planning of coherent text.” In Natural Language Generation in Artificial Intelligence and Computational Linguistics, ed. by C. Paris, W. Swartout and W. Mann, 83–102. Boston: Kluwer.
Jameson, A., W. Hoeppner and W. Wahlster
1980“The natural language system HAM-RPM as a hotel manager.” In GI–10: Jahrestagung Saarbrücken, ed. by R. Wilhelm. Berlin: Springer.
1996“Goal formulation based on communicative principles.”Proceedings of the 16th COLING: 598–603.
2009Constructive Dialogue Modelling: Speech Interaction and Rational Agents. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons.
Jokinen, K. and B. Gambäck
2004“DUMAS – Adaptation and robust information processing for mobile speech interfaces.”Proceedings of the 1st Baltic Conference “Human Language Technologies – The Baltic Perspective”, Riga, Latvia: 115–120.
Jokinen, K. and K. Kanto
2004”User expertise modelling and adaptivity in a speech-based e-mail system.”Proceedings of the 42nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics ACL-04, Barcelona, Spain, 87–94.
Jokinen, K. and M.F. Mctear
2009Spoken Dialogue Systems. Synthesis lectures on human language technologies. San Rafael, CA: Morgan and Claypool.
Jokinen, K. and S. Pärkson
2011“Synchrony and copying in conversational interactions.”Proceedings of the 3rd Nordic Symposium on Multimodal Communication [ NEALT Proceedings Series, Vol. 15], ed. by P. Paggio, E. Ahlsén, J. Allwood, K. Jokinen, C. Navarretta. Tartu University Library, (digitally http://hdl.handle.net/10062/22532) .
Jokinen, K., H. Tanaka and A. Yokoo
1998“Context management with topics for spoken language systems.”Proceedings of the Joint International Conference of Computational Linguistics and the Association for Computational Linguistics (COLING-ACL’98), Montreal, Canada: 631–637.
Jokinen, K., M. Nishida and S. Yamamoto
“Turn-taking and gaze in conversational interactions.”ACM Trans. Interactive Intelligent Systems.
1983“Cooperative responses from a portable natural language database query system.” In Computational Models of Discourse, ed. by M. Brady and R. Berwick. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Kass, R. and T. Finin
1988“Modeling the user in natural language systems.”Computational Linguistics 14: 5–22.
1989“Language generation systems.” In Computational Linguistics: An International Handbook on Computer Oriented Language Research and Applications, ed. by I.S. Bátori, W. Lenders and W. Putschke, 471–480. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
(ed)1987Natural Language Generation: New Results in Artificial Intelligence, Psychology and Linguistics. Dordrecht: Nijhoff (Kluwer Academic Publishers). BoP
1967“Some functions of gaze direction in social interaction.”Acta Psychologica 26: 22–63.
2004Gesture: Visible Action as Utterance. Cambridge University Press.
1989“A taxonomy of beliefs and goals for user models in dialog systems.” In User Models in Dialogue Systems, ed. by A. Kobsa and W. Wahlster, 52–68. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Koiso, H., Y. Horiuchi, S. Tutiya, A. Ichikawa and Y. Den
1998“An analysis of turn taking and backchannels based on prosodic and syntactic features in japanese map task dialogs.”Language and Speech 41(3–4): 295–321.
Krahmer, E., M. Swerts, M. Theune and M. Weegels
1999“Problem spotting in human-machine interaction.”Proceedings of Eurospeech ’991423–1426. Budapest, Hungary.
1980“Question answering in natural language processing.” In Natural Language Question Answering, ed. by L. Bolc. Munich: Hanser.
Levin, E., R. Pieraccini and W. Eckert
2000“A stochastic model of human-machine interaction for learning dialog strategies.”IEEE Trans. on Speech and Audio Processing 8(1): 11-23.
1986“Linguistic Coherence: A plan based alternative.”Proceedings of the 24th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: 215–223.
Litman, D., M. Kearns, S. Singh and M. Walker
2000“Automatic optimization of dialogue management.”Proceedings of the 18th COLING: 502–508.
Litman, D.J. and S. Pan
2002“Designing and evaluating an adaptive spoken dialogue system.”User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction 12(2/3): 111–137.
Luff, P., N. Gilbert and D. Frohlich
(eds)1990Computers and Conversation. London: Academic Press.
Luger, G.F. and W.A. Stubblefield
1983Artificial Intelligence: Structures and Strategies for Complex Problem Solving, 2nd ed. Redwood City, CA: Benjamin Cummings.
Mancini, M., G. Castellano, E. Bevacqua and C. Peters
2007“Copying behaviour of expressive motion.”Lecture Notes in Computer Science 4418: 180–191. (Proceedings of the Computer Vision/Computer Graphics Collaboration Techniques. Third International Conference, MIRAGE 2007).
Mann, W. and S. Thompson
1988“Rhetorical structure theory: Towards a functional theory of text organization.”Text 8: 243–281. BoP
Martin, J.C., P. Paggio, P. Kuenlein, R. Stiefelhagen and F. Pianesi
(eds)2007Multimodal Corpora for Modelling Human Multimodal Behaviour. Special issue of theInternational Journal of Language Resources and Evaluation 41(3–4).
1988“Reasoning on a highlighted user model to respond to misconceptions.”Computational Linguistics 14 (3): 52–63.
1989“Highlighting a user model to repond to misconceptions.” In User Models in Dialogue Systems, ed. by A. Kobsa and W. Wahlster, 233–254. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Mccoy, K. and J. Cheng, J.
1991“Focus of attention: Constraining what can be said next.” In Natural Language Generation in Artificial Intelligence and Computational Linguistics, ed. by C. Paris, W. Swartout and W. Mann, 103–124. Boston: Kluwer.
1992“Natural language generation.” In Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence, (2nd ed.) ed. by S. Shapiro, 983–997. New York: Wiley.
1985Text Generation: Using Discourse Strategies and Focus Constraints to Generate Natural Language Text. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mckeown, K., M. Elhadad, Y. Fukumoto, J. Lim, C. Lombardi, J. Robin and F. Smadja
1990“Natural language generation in COMET.” In Current Research in Natural Language Generation, ed. by R. Dale, C. Mellish and M. Zock, 103–139. London: Academic Press.
Mcroy, S.W. and G. Hirst
1995“The repair of speech act misunderstandings by abductive inference.”Computational Linguistics 21: 5–478.
1991“A reactive approach to explanation.” In Natural Language Generation in Artificial Intelligence and Computational Linguistics, ed. by C. Paris, W. Swartout and W. Mann, 3–48. Boston/Dordrecht/London: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
1989“Responding to ‘Huh’: Answering vaguely articulated followup questions.”Proceedings CHI’:89 91.
1989“User models and conversational settings: Modeling the user's wants.” In User Models in Dialogue Systems, ed. by A. Kobsa and W. Wahlster, 364–385. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Morik, K. and C. Rollinger
1985“The real estate agent: modeling users by uncertain reasoning.”AI Magazine 6: 44–52.
Moukas, A. and P. Maes
1998“Amalthaea: An evolving multi-agent information filtering and discovery system for the WWW.”Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems 1(1): 59–88.
1986“Cognitive engineering.” In User Centered System Design, ed. by D. Norman and S. Draper, 32–65. Hillsdale: Erlbaum.
Norman, D. and S. Draper
(eds)1986User Centered System Design: New Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction. Hillsdale: Erlbaum.
1992Paradigms of Artificial Intelligence Programming: Case Studies in Common Lisp. San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann.
Padilha, E.G. and J.C. Carletta
2003“Nonverbal behaviours improving a simulation of small group discussion.”Proceedings of the First International Nordic Symposium of Multi-modal Communication
, Copenhagen, Denmark, 25–26, September 2003.
1988“Tailoring object descriptions to the user's level of expertise.”Computational Linguistics 14: 64–78.
1991“Generation and explanation: Building an explanation facility for the explainable expert system framework.” In Natural Language Generation in Artificial Intelligence and Computational Linguistics, ed. by C. Paris, W. Swartout and W. Mann, 49–82. Boston: Kluwer.
Paris, C. and K. Mckeown
1987“Discourse strategies for describing complex physical objects.” In Natural Language Generation, ed. by G. Kempen, 97–115. Dordrecht: Kluwer. BoP
Paris, C.L., W.R. Swartout, and W.C. Mann
(eds)1991Natural Language Generation in Artificial Intelligence and Computational Linguistics. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
1988“Tailoring object descriptions to a user's level of expertise.”Computational Linguistics 14(3): 64–78.
Pickering, M.J. and S. Garrod
2004“Toward a mechanistic psychology of dialogue.”Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2(2): 169–225.
1986“A model of plan inference that distinguishes between the beliefs of actors and observers.”Proceedings of the 24th Annual Meeting of the Association of Computational Linguistics207–214.
1984Computation and Cognition. Cambridge: Bradford Books.
1989“Detecting and responding to plan-oriented misconceptions.” In User Models in Dialogue Systems, ed. by A. Kobsa and W. Wahlster, 108–132. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Ravichandran, D. and E. Hovy
2002“Learning surface text patterns for a question answering system.” In ACL’02: Proc. 40th Annual Meeting on Association for Computational Linguistics, 41–47. Association for Computational Linguistics.
Reeves, N. and C. Nass
1996The Media Equation: How People Treat Computers, Television, and New Media like Real People and Places. New York: Cambridge University Press.
1985Getting Computers to Talk like You and Me: Discourse Context, Focus and Semantics. Cambridge: MIT Press. BoP
1990“Generating descriptions that exploit a user's domain knowledge.” In Current Research in Natural Language Generation, ed. by R. Dale, C. Mellish and M. Zock, 257–285. London: Academic Press.
1979“User modelling via stereotypes.”Cognitive Science 3: 329–354.
1983“Users are Individuals: individualizing user models.”International Journal of Man-Machine Studies 18: 188–214.
1989“Stereotypes and user modeling.” In User Models in Dialogue Systems, ed. by A. Kobsa and W. Wahlster, 35–51. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
1981“Determining verb phrase referents in dialogs.”American Journal of Computational Linguistics 7: 1–18. BoP
Schuster, E., D. Chin, R. Cohen, A. Kobsa, K. Morik, K. Sparck Jones and W. Wahlster
1988“Discussion section on the relationship between user models and discourse models.”Computational Linguistics 14(3): 79–103.
Scott, D. and C. De Souza
1990“Getting the message across in rst-based text generation.” In Current Research in Natural Language Generation, ed. by R. Dale, C. Mellish and M. Zock, 47–73. London: Academic Press.
1975“Indirect speech acts.” In Syntax and Semantics, Vol. 3, Speech Acts, ed. by P. Cole and J. Morgan, 59–82. New York: Academic Press.
1979Expression and Meaning: Studies in the Theory of Speech Acts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
1984Minds, Brains and Machines. London: Penguin.
1992Encyclopaedia of Artificial Intelligence, 2nd ed. New York: Wiley.
1983“What the speaker means: The recognition of speaker’s plans in discourse.”Computers and Mathematics with Applications 9: 71–82.
1985“Plan parsing for intended response recognition of speaker’s plan in discourse.”Computational Intelligence 1: 1–10.
Simmons, R., S. Klein and K. Mcconlogue
1964“Indexing and dependency logic for answering english questions.”American Documentation 15: 196–202.
Sinclair, J. and R.M. Coulthard
1975Towards an Analysis of Discourse. The English used by Teachers and Pupils. London: Oxford University Press. BoP
Sparck Jones, K.
1989“Realism about user modeling.” In User models in Dialogue Systems, ed. by A. Kobsa and W. Wahlster, 341–363. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Sparck Jones, K.
1991“Tailoring the output to the user: What does user modelling in generation mean?” In Natural Language Generation in Artificial Intelligence and Computational Linguistics, ed. by C. Paris, W. Swartout and W. Mann, 201–225. Boston: Kluwer.
Stolcke, A., K. Ries, N. Coccaro, E. Shriberg, R. Bates, D. Jurafsky, P. Taylor, R. Martin, C. Van Ess-Dykema and M. Meteer
2000“Dialogue act modeling for automatic tagging and recognition of conversational speech.”Computational Linguistics 26(3): 339–373.
Strube, M. and U. Hahn
1999“Functional centering – grounding referential coherence in information structure.”Computational Linguistics 25(3): 309–344.
1977“Strategy and tactics in language production.” In Papers from the Thirteenth Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society, ed. by W. Beach, S. Fox and S. Philosoph, 651–668.
1994A computational theory of grounding in natural language conversation. Natural Language Conversation. Ph.D. Thesis [TR 545], University of Rochester, Department of Computer Science.
Traum, D.R. and J.F. Allen
1994“Discourse obligations in dialogue processing.”Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics
1984“Emotions in infancy: Regulators of contact and relationships with persons.” In Approaches to Emotion, ed. by K. Scherer and P. Ekman, 129–157. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
1950“Computing machinery and intelligence.”Mind 49: 433–460. [Reprinted in Minds and machines, ed. by A. Andersen, 4–30. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1964.]
Wahlster, W. and A. Kobsa
1989“User models in dialog systems.” In: User Models in Dialogue Systems, ed. by A. Kobsa and W. Wahlster, 4–33. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Wahlster, W., H. Marburger, A. Jameson and S. Busemann
1983“Overanswering yes-no questions: Extended responses in a NL interface to a vision system.” In
Proceedings of the 8th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI’83)
, 643–646, Karlsruhe. International Joint Conferences on Artificial Intelligence. BoP
Walker, M.A., J.C. Fromer and S. Narayanan
1998“Learning optimal dialogue strategies: A case study of a spoken agent for email.”Proceedings of ACL-COLING’98: 1345–1352.
Walker, M.A., D.J. Litman, C.A. Kamm and A. Abella
1997“Evaluating spoken dialogue agents with PARADISE: Two case studies.”Computer Speech and Language 12(3): 317–347.
2009“The anatomy of ALICE.” In Parsing the Turing Test, ed. by R. Epstein, G. Roberts and G. Beber, 181–210. Berlin: Springer.
1991“The Computer for the twenty-first century.”Scientific American 265(3): 94–104.
1966“Eliza – a computer program for the study of natural language communication between man and machine.”Communications of the Association for Computing Machinery 9: 36–45.
1984Computer Power and Human Reason: From Judgement to Calculation. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Wilcock, G. and K. Jokinen
submitted). “Speech, gaze and gesturing – multimodal open-domain conversations with the Nao robot.” IWSDS-2012, Paris.
1981“PAM.” In Inside Computer Understanding, ed. by R. Schank and C. Riesbeck, 136–179. Hillsdale: Erlbaum.
1983Planning and Understanding. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. BoP
Wilensky, R., Y. Arens and D. Chin
1984“Talking to UNIX in English.”Communications of the ACM 27: 574–593.
Wilensky, R., D. Chin, M. Luria, J. Martin, J. Mayfield and D. Wu