Aspects of (‘and’) as a discourse marker in Persian

Reza Kazemian and Mohammad Amouzadeh


This study investigates the functions of (‘and’) as a discourse marker in Persian. More specifically, this study accounts for certain aspects of co-occurrences and their linearization order. Fraser’s model (forthcoming) was mainly employed to classify the multiple functions conveyed by . A corpus-based approach was taken to provide an overview of co-occurrences with other discourse markers. The data were collected from both written and spoken corpora. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were conducted to examine the frequency and the functional differences in the use of in the data – namely, elaboration, inferential, contrast, and alternation. The results of the study indicate the mobile nature of in its co-occurrences with other DMs. The findings also show that some modifications to Fraser’s (forthcoming) DM co-occurrence principles are required to handle certain cases of language-specific behavior of in Persian. The configuration suggested for uses and its multi-functionality will also shed some lights on cross-linguistic studies of its counterparts in other languages.

Publication history
Table of contents

The importance of discourse markers (DMs) has attracted the attention of many scholars in linguistics with different perspectives (e.g., discourse connectivity and continuity, semantic change and grammaticalization, modal and pragmatic particles, etc.). This leads to diverse terms (see Dér 2010) and approaches for the investigation of DMs. Nonetheless, in most studies, they are mainly treated as communicative devices creating a connection between the preceding and following segments of discourse. The trend of investigation on DMs has not been confined within European major languages such as English (Aijmer 2002), German (Siebold 2021), Spanish (Pinto and Vigil 2020), French (Vanderbauwhede and Lamiroy 2020), but extended to other languages such as Arabic (Habib 2021) as well as Persian (Zoghdar-Moghdam and Dabirmoghdam 2002).

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