Contact linguistics

Michael MeeuwisJan-Ola Östman
Table of contents

The purpose of this article is to give an overview of issues related to the processes behind, and linguistic impact of various types of contact between languages and language users, to what happens when languages/language users come into contact, and when they are (not) in contact. While paying specific attention to issues directly relevant to pragmatics, the exposition here will be a fairly general survey of existing research on language-contact phenomena, with an attempt to present the — often implicit — large-scale framework of study in this field.

Full-text access is restricted to subscribers. Log in to obtain additional credentials. For subscription information see Subscription & Price.


Auer, P.
1998Code-switching in conversation. Routledge.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Androutsopoulos, J.
2006Introduction: Sociolinguistics and computer-mediated communication. Journal of Sociolinguistics 10: 419–438. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Bakker, P. & Y. Matras
2003The mixed language debate. Mouton. DOI logo  BoPGoogle Scholar
Barron, A.
2003Acquisition in Interlanguage Pragmatics. Benjamins. DOI logo  BoPGoogle Scholar
Bolton, K. & B.B. Kachru
2006World Englishes: Critical concepts in linguistics. Routledge. Google Scholar
Bou Franch, P.
1998On pragmatic transfer. Studies in English language and Linguistics 2: 5–20. Google Scholar
Campbell, L. & M.C. Muntzel
1989The structural consequences of language death. In N. Dorian (ed.): 181–196. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Clyne, M.
1972Perspectives on language contact. Hawthorn.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Coupland, N.
2009Dialects standards and social change. In M. Maegaard et al. (eds.) Language attitudes standardization and language change: 27–49. Novus. Google Scholar
Crystal, D.
2000Language death. Cambridge University Press. DOI logo  BoPGoogle Scholar
Dahl, Ö. & M. Koptjevskaja-Tamm
2001Circum-Baltic languages. vol. 1–2. Benjamins. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Deuchar, M., P. Muysken & S. Wang
2007Structured variation in Codeswitching. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 10(3): 298–340. DOI logo  BoPGoogle Scholar
Dorian, N.
1993Internally and externally motivated change in language contact settings. In C. Jones (ed.) Historical linguistics: 131–155. Longman. DOI logo  BoPGoogle Scholar
1989Investigating obsolescence. Cambridge University Press. DOI logo  BoPGoogle Scholar
Emeneau, M.B.
1956India as a linguistic area. Language 32: 3–16. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Fishman, J.
1991Reversing Language Shift. Multilingual Matters.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Freeman, D. & Y. Freeman
2001Between worlds: Access to second language acquisition. Heinemann. Google Scholar
Gumperz, J.
1982Discourse strategies. Cambridge University Press. DOI logo  BoPGoogle Scholar
Haas, M.R.
1969The prehistoiry of languages. Mouton. Google Scholar
Hansen, L. & A. Reetz-Kurashige
1999Investigating second language attrition. In L. Hansen (ed.) Second language attrition: Evidence from Japanese contexts: 3–20. Oxford University Press. Google Scholar
Haugen, E.
1950The analysis of linguistic borrowing. Language 26: 210–231. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Heine, B. & T. Kuteva
2005Language contact and grammatical change. Cambridge University Press. DOI logo  BoPGoogle Scholar
Kerswill, P.
2002Koineization and accommodation. In J.K. Chambers, P. Trudgill & N. Schilling-Estes (eds.) The handbook of language variation and change: 669–702Blackwell. Google Scholar
Kristiansen, T. & H. Sandøy
(eds.) (forthc.) The linguistic consequences of globalization in the Nordic countries Thematic issue of The International Journal of the Sociology of Language
Lanza, E.
1997Language mixing in bilingual children. Oxford University Press.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Larsen-Freeman, D.
2000Second language acquisition. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 20: 165–181. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Lehiste, I.
1988Lectures on language contact. MIT Press.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Li Wei
1994Three generations two languages, one family. Multilingual Matters. Google Scholar
Masica, C.P.
1976Defining a linguistic area. University of Chicago Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Meeuwis, M.
1991A pragmatic perspective on contact-induced language change. Pragmatics 1: 481–516.  BoP DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Meeuwis, M. & F. Brisard
1993Time and the diagnosis of language change. Antwerp Papers in Linguistics 72.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Mous, M.
2003The making of a mixed languages. Benjamins. DOI logo  BoPGoogle Scholar
Östman J-O
2008Det globala i det lokala. In J. Lindström et al. Svenskan i Finland 10: 22–34. Nordica.Google Scholar
Östman J-O & J. Raukko
1995The ‘pragmareal’ challenge to genetic language tree models. In S. Suhonen (ed.) The Fenno-Baltic cultural area: 31–69. University of Helsinki Castrenianum. Google Scholar
Paolillo, J.
2005Measuring linguistic diversity on the internet. http://​www​.uis​.unesco​.org​/template​/pdf​/cscl​/MeasuringLinguisticDiversity​_En​.pdf [last consulted March 6, 2009]. Google Scholar
Poplack, S.
2004Code-switching. In U. Ammon, N. Dittmar, K.J. Mattheier & P. Trudgill (eds.) Sociolinguistik: 589–596. De Gruyter.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Poussa, P.
(ed) 2002Relativization in the North Sea Littoral. Lincom Europe. Google Scholar
Prince, E.
1988On pragmatic change. Journal of Pragmatics 12: 505–518. DOI logo  BoPGoogle Scholar
Ramat, P. & E. Roma
2007Europe and the Mediterranean as linguistic areas. Benjamins. DOI logo  BoPGoogle Scholar
Raukko, J. & J-O. Östman
1994Pragmaattinen näkökulma Itämeren kielialueeseen. University of Helsinki, Dept. of General Linguistics.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Ringbom, H.
1987The role of the first language in foreign language learning. Multilingual Matters. Google Scholar
2006Cross-linguistic similarity in foreign language learning. Multilingual Matters.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Sebba, M.
1997Contact languages: Pidgins and creoles. Palgrave MacMillan. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Seidlhofer, B., A. Breiteneder & M-L. Pitzl
2006English as a lingua franca in Europe. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 26: 1–34. DOI logo  BoPGoogle Scholar
Thomason, S.G.
2001Language contact: An introduction. Edinburgh University Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Thomason, S.G. & T. Kaufman
1988Language contact creolization, and genetic linguistics. University of California Press.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Ureland, S.
1987Sprachkontakt in der Hanse. Niemeyer. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Valdés, G. & C. Pino
1981Muy a tus órdenes: Compliment responses among Mexican-American bilinguals. Language in Society 10: 53–72. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Van Coetsem, F.
1988Loan phonology and the two transfer types in language contact. Foris. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Weinreich, U.
1953Languages in contact. Linguistic Circle of New York. Mouton, 1963. Google Scholar
Winford, D.
2003An introduction to contact linguistics. Blackwell.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Woolard, K.A.
1989Language convergence and death as social process. In N. Dorian (ed.): 355–367. DOI logoGoogle Scholar