The effect of translator training on interference and difficulty
Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel
Twenty-two translation students translated two texts using Translog keystroke-monitoring software, once at the beginning of their studies and again three semesters later. Performance on two measures of interference, lexicalizable strings and false cognates, improved significantly among both the students working into L1 and those working into L2. Students working into L1 found the task as difficult after three semesters as they had at the beginning of their studies. For students translating into their L2, translation did get significantly easier as judged by the objective measures of time and keystrokes, but the students’ subjective assessment of difficulty and satisfaction was unchanged. This study also indicates that students appreciate the contribution of translation theory to practice.
The lay view of translation as a straightforward and rather simple task and of the translator as someone who knows several languages has very little to do with the reality of professional translation. Professional translation is a highly complex undertaking, which requires a wealth of expertise and can be dauntingly difficult. By its very nature, professional translation involves decision making, compromise, and problem solving.
Barčenkov, Aleksandr A.
1992 “Training translators and interpreters in the USSR”. Meta XXXVII:1. 163–168.
Bastin, Georges L.
2000 “Evaluating beginners’ re-expression and creativity: A positive approach”. The translator 6:2. 231–245.
1986 “Introspective methods in research on interlingual and intercultural communication”. Juliane House and Shoshana Blum-Kulka, eds. Interlingual and intercultural communication: Discourse and cognition in translation and second language acquisition studies. Tübingen: Narr 1986 195–209.
[ p. 359 ]
1991 “Towards a model of translation competence”. Meta XXXVI:2/3. 329–343.
1998Translation into the second language. London/New York: Longman.
1999 “A cognitive approach to source text difficulty in translation”. Target 11:1. 33–63.
Chamizo Domínguez, Pedro José and Brigitte Nerlich
2002 “False friends: Their origin and semantics in some selected languages”. Journal of pragmatics 34. 1833–1849.
1997Memes of translation: The spread of ideas in translation theory. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
1988Translation: An interpretive approach, trs.Patricia Logan and Monica Creery. Canada: University of Ottowa Press.
2001Experiences in translation, tr. Alastair McEwen. Toronto/Buffalo/London: University of Toronto Press.
1989 “Pleasures and problems of translation”. John Biguenet and Rainer Schulte, eds. The craft of translation. Chicago/London: The University of Chicago Press 1989 70–92.
1988From French to English: A look at the translation process in students, bilinguals, and professional translators. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University. [Unpublished Ed.D. dissertation.]
Gernsbacher, Morton Ann and Miriam Shlesinger
1997 “The proposed role of suppression in simultaneous interpretation”. Interpreting 2:1/2. 119–140.
1978 “The difference between natural and professional translation”. Canadian modern language review 34. 417–427.
Hofstadter, Douglas R.
1997Le ton beau de Marot: In praise of the music of language. New York: BasicBooks.
1996 “Hard work will bear beautiful fruit: A comparison of two thinkaloud protocol studies”. Meta XLV:1. 60–74.
[ p. 361 ]
Jääskeläinen, Riitta and Sonja Tirkkonen-Condit
1991 “Automatised processes in professional vs. non-professional translation: A think-aloud protocol study”. Sonja Tirkkonen-Condit, ed. Empirical research in translation and intercultural studies. Tübingen: Narr 1991 89–109.
Jakobsen, Arnt Lykke
1999 “Logging target text production with Translog”. Gyde Hansen, ed. Probing the process in translation: Methods and results. Copenhagen: Samfundslitteratur 1999 9–20. [Copenhagen studies in language 24.]
Jakobsen, Arnt Lykke
2003 “Effects of think aloud on translation speed, revision and segmentation”. Fabio Alves, ed. Triangulating translation: Perspectives in process oriented research. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins 2003 69–95.
Kiraly, Donald Charles
1995Pathways to translation: Pedagogy and process. Kent, Ohio/ London, England: Kent State University Press.
1996 “Social and cultural differences”. Cay Dollerup and Vibeke Appel, eds. Teaching translation and interpreting 3: New horizons. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins 1996 81–87.
2004 “What happens to ‘unique items’ in learners’ translations?: ‘Theories’ and ‘concepts’ as a challenge for novices’ views on ‘good translation’”. Anna Mauranen and Pekka Kujamäki, eds. Translation universals: Do they exist?Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins 2004 187–204.
[ p. 360 ]
1971 “Over-indulgence and under-representation—Aspects of mother-tongue interference”. Gerhard Nickel, ed. Papers in contrastive linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1971 115–121.
Marmaridou, A. Sophia S.
1996 “Directionality in translation processes and practices”. Target 8:1. 49–73.
1994 “Goals and methods for a course in translation theory”. Mary Snell-Hornby, Franz Pöchhacker and Klaus Kaindl, eds. Translation Studies: An interdiscipline. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins 1994 401–409.
1987 “Translation universals: Perspectives and explorations”. Marilyn Gaddis Rose, ed. Translation perspectives III: Selected papers, 1985–86. Binghamton: SUNY-Binghamton 1987 69–83.
Nida, Eugene A.
1996 “Translation: Possible and impossible”. Marilyn Gaddis Rose, ed. Translation perspectives IX: Translation horizons. State University of New York at Binghamton 1996 7–23.
Ortega y Gasset, José
1937/1992 “The misery and the splendor of translation”, tr.Elizabeth Gamble Miller. Rainer Schulte and John Biguenet, eds. Theories of translation. Chicago/London: The University of Chicago Press 1992 93–112.
Pokorn, Nike K.
2005Challenging the traditional axioms: Translation into a non-mother tongue. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
1993Epistemological problems in translation and its teaching: A seminar for thinking students. Spain: Caminade.
1989 “No two snowflakes are alike: Translation as metaphor”. John Biguenet and Rainer Schulte, eds. The craft of translation. Chicago/London: The University of Chicago Press 1989 1–12.
1971The forked tongue: A study of the translation process. The Hague/Paris: Mouton.
1992 “Lexicalization in translation: An empirical study of students’ progress”. Cay Dollerup and Anne Loddegaard, eds. Teaching translation and interpreting: Training, talent and experience. Amsterdam/Philadelphia 1992 123–127.
Shreve, Gregory M. and Bruce J. Diamond
1997 “Cognitive processes in translation and interpreting”. Joseph H. Danks, Gregory M. Shreve, Stephen B. Fountain and Michael K. McBeath, eds. Cognitive processes in translation and interpreting. London: Thousand Oaks, and New Delhi: Sage 1997 233–251.
Spilka, Irène V.
1970 “Why not ‘sur la ferme’?: A case of linguistic interference”. Meta XV:4. 212–219.
1975/1992After Babel: Aspects of language and translation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2000 “Poor relations and black sheep in translation studies”. Target 12:2. 205–228.
ed.2005Training for the new millennium. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
1989 “Professional vs. non-professional translation: A thinkaloud protocol study”. Candace Séguinot, ed. The translation process. Toronto: H.G. Publications 1989 73–85.
1986 “Translation as a psycholinguistic process”. Lars Wollin and Hans Lindquist, eds. Translation Studies in Scandinavia: Proceedings from the Scandinavian Symposium on Translation Theory (SSOTT) II, Lund 14–15 June 1985. Sweden: CWK Gleerup 1986 140–149.
1996 “False friends in translation work: An empirical study”. Perspectives: Studies in translatology 4:2. 215–222.
1979 “Interlanguage and its manifestations in translation”. Meta XXIV:2. 223–231.
2002 “The difference that translation makes: The translator’s unconscious”. Alessandra Riccardi, ed. Translation Studies: Perspectives on an emerging discipline. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2002 214–241.
Vinay, Jean-Paul and Darbelnet, Jean
1958/1995Comparative stylistics of French and English: A methodology for translation, trs. and eds. Juan C. Sager and M.-J. Hamel. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.