Anne Frank in the ultra-Catholic Franco period: Challenge and exploitation of the American mythification of Het Achterhuis

María Jesús Fernández-Gil

Abstract

This paper examines Spaniards’ responses to the Americanised construction of Anne Frank and her diary. In addition to analysing the context in which the first translation into Castilian Spanish was published, consideration is given to the transformative moves that the original text and the Broadway and Hollywood rewritings of the diary underwent when they were made available in Spain in the second half of the 1950s. Special attention is paid to the discursive reconfiguration of the mythicised view built around the figure of Anne Frank in the United States and to its challenge and exploitation in the ultra-Catholic years of Franco’s regime. In that sense, one of the major driving forces behind this paper is answering the question of whether or not the reception of this text in Francoist Spain was affected by the fact that its author was an adolescent, a Jew, and a woman.

Keywords
Publication history
Table of contents

Given that Anne Frank’s Het Achterhuis (1947) is currently available in more than 65 different languages, it comes as no surprise to learn that it was translated into Spanish, the second-most widely spoken home language in the world, as early as 1952 (Frank 1952b, tr. Blaya Lozano). The Spanish translation thus appeared the same year as the English translation (Mooyart-Doubleday), thanks to which the diary gained worldwide fame. While this means that Anne Frank’s testimony has been available in Spanish since the early 1950s, Spaniards did not have access to the story until about mid-decade, when a translation was produced under the title of Las habitaciones de atrás (Frank 1955, tr. Iglesias Barba), allowing for the text to be read in the Iberian Spanish market. Judging from the fact that a plethora of translations as well as original rewritings have been produced since, it appears that interest in Anne Frank remains high among Spanish artists and the general public.

Full-text access is restricted to subscribers. Log in to obtain additional credentials. For subscription information see Subscription & Price. Direct PDF access to this article can be purchased through our e-platform.

References

ABC
1958 “Teatro San Fernando” [San Fernando Theatre]. ABC, January 7 1958.Google Scholar
Abellán, Manuel L.
1980Censura y creación literaria en España (1939–1976) [Censorship and literary creation in Spain (1939–1976)]. Barcelona: Ediciones Península.Google Scholar
Alonso, José Luis
1957aEl diario de Ana Frank [The diary of Anne Frank]. Spain. [Play]Google Scholar
1957b “Mi dirección escénica de El diario de Ana Frank ” [My artistic direction of El diario de Ana Frank ]. Primer Acto 1: 9–14.Google Scholar
Alvero, Rafael
2008Diario de Ana Frank. Un canto a la vida [The diary of Anne Frank. A song to life]. Spain: Producciones Artísticas Gestalt SL. [Musical]Google Scholar
Bataller, Salvador, and Juan García
2009El Diario de Ana Frank [orig. The Diary of Anne Frank ]. Barcelona: Algar. [Play]Google Scholar
Bloom, Harold
ed. 2010Anne Frank’s The Diary of Anne Frank. New York: Bloom’s Literary Criticism.Google Scholar
Bou, Enric, and Heike Scharm
2016 “Writing of the Self: Iberian Diary Writing.” In A Comparative History of Literatures in the Iberian Peninsula, edited by César Domínguez, Anxo Abuín González, and Ellen Sapega, 256–267. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref logoGoogle Scholar
Brincat, Leo
2006 “Need for International Condemnation of the Franco Regime, for Debate in the Standing Committee.” In Documents: Working Papers, 2006 Ordinary Session (First Part) 23–27 January 2006, edited by Council of Europe. Volume II, 82. Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing.Google Scholar
Cervelló, Jordi
(1971) 1973Anna Frank, un simbol [Música notada]: para orquesta de cuerda [Anna Frank, a symbol (annotated music): Cord orchestra]. Madrid: Editorial de Música Española Contemporánea. [Music]Google Scholar
Chyrikins, Mariela, and Magdalena Vieyra
2010 “Making the Past Relevant to Future Generations. The Work of the Anne Frank House in Latin America.” Intercultural Education 21 (Supplement 1): 7–15. Crossref logoGoogle Scholar
Cohen, Judah M.
2012 “Sounds from the Secret Annex: Composing a Young Girl’s Thoughts.” In Kirshenblatt-Gimblett and Shandler 2012b, 265–287.Google Scholar
Cole, Tim
1999Selling the Holocaust: From Auschwitz to Schindler. How History Is Bought, Packaged and Sold. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Coombes, Annie E.
2003History after Apartheid. Visual Culture and Public Memory in a Democratic South Africa. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. Crossref logoGoogle Scholar
Crumbaugh, Justin
2010Destination Dictatorship: The Spectacle of Spain’s Tourist Boom and the Reinvention of Difference. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
Daranas, Mariano
. “Antes y después de Ana Frank” [Before and after Anne Frank]. ABC, June 18 1957.Google Scholar
Doneson, Judith
2002The Holocaust in American Film. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.Google Scholar
Fernández-Gil, María Jesús
2018 “La recepción de Diario de Ana Frank en España: de la censura a la ‘niña rebelde’ al celebrado espíritu luchador de la joven” [The reception of Anne Frank’s diary in Spain: from censoring the young ‘rebel girl’ to celebrating her striving spirit]. In Traducción, género y censura en la literatura y en los medios de comunicación, edited by María Goretti Zaragoza Ninet, Juan José Martínez Sierra, Beatriz Cerezo Merchán, and Mabel Richart Marset, 73–83. Granada: Comares.Google Scholar
Frank, Anne
1947Het Achterhuis. Dagboekbrieven 12 juni 1942 – 1 augustus 1944. Amsterdam: Contact.Google Scholar
1952aThe Diary of a Young Girl [orig. Het Achterhuis ]. Translated by Barbara Mooyaart-Doubleday. New York: The Modern Library.Google Scholar
1952bDiario de Ana Frank: cartas a mi muñeca [orig. unknown]. Translated by José Blaya Lozano. Buenos Aires: Hemisferio.Google Scholar
1955Las habitaciones de atrás [orig. The Diary of a Young Girl ]. Translated by María Isabel Iglesias Barba. Barcelona: Garbo.Google Scholar
1959Diari [orig. unknown]. Translated by Ramón Folch i Camarasa. Barcelona: Selecta.Google Scholar
(1952) 1967Anne Frank. The Diary of a Young Girl [orig. Het Achterhuis ]. Translated by Barbara Mooyaart-Doubleday. New York: Bantam.Google Scholar
1985Diario [orig. Das Tagebuch der Anne ]. Translated by Toni Calduch. Barcelona: Editorial Planeta.Google Scholar
1989The Diary of Anne Frank: The Critical Edition [orig. Het Achterhuis ]. Translated by Arnold J. Pomerans and Barbara Mooyaart-Doubleday. New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
1994Diario [orig. Het Achterhuis ]. Translated by Diego Puls. Barcelona: Plaza & Janés.Google Scholar
2004Diario de Ana Frank [orig. Das Tagebuch der Anne ]. Translated by Tomás Ruibal Outes. Pontevedra: Kalandraka Editora.Google Scholar
2005Anne Franken Egunkaria [orig. Spanish, English and French translations]. Translated by Josu Zabaleta Kortabarria. Donostia: Erein Argitaletxea.Google Scholar
Gómez Castro, Cristina
2008 “Translation and Censorship Policies in the Spain of the 1970s: Market vs. Ideology?” In New Trends in Translation and Cultural Identity, edited by Micaela Muñoz-Calvo, Carmen Buesa-Gómez, and M. Ángeles Ruiz-Moneva, 129–138. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.Google Scholar
Gonshak, Henry
2015Hollywood and the Holocaust. New York: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
Goodman, David G., and Masanori Miyazawa
2000Jews in the Japanese Mind: The History and Uses of a Cultural Stereotype. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
Goodrich, Frances, and Albert Hackett
(1955) 1956The Diary of Anne Frank. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
Graver, Lawrence
1997An Obsession with Anne Frank: Meyer Levin and the “Diary.” Berkeley, CA: California University Press.Google Scholar
Gubkin, Liora
2012 “Anne Frank, a Guest at the Seder.” In Kirshenblatt-Gimblett and Shandler 2012b, 193–211.Google Scholar
Gutiérrez Lanza, Camino
2011 “Censors and Censorship Boards in Franco’s Spain (1950s-1960s): An Overview Based on the TRACE Cinema Catalogue.” In Translation and Opposition, edited by Dimitris Asimakoulas and Margaret Rogers, 305–320. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Crossref logoGoogle Scholar
Huguet, Montserrat
2013 “Memoria del primer franquismo. Mujeres, niños y cuentos de infancia” [Memory of the early Francoist era. Women, children and tales for children]. Accessed March 18, 2018. http://​e​-archivo​.uc3m​.es​/bitstream​/handle​/10016​/16414​/cuentos​_huguet​_2013​_pp​.pdf
Jané-Lligé, Jordi
2016 “Literary Translation and Censorship: Günter Grass in Franco’s Spain.” In Perspectives on Translation, edited by Anna Bączkowska, 235–257. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars.Google Scholar
Juncal, María
2014El encierro [The Imprisonment]. María Juncal Producciones. [Flamenco]Google Scholar
Kirshenblatt-Gimblett, Barbara, and Jeffrey Shandler
2012a “Introduction: Anne Frank, the Phenomenon.” In Kirshenblatt-Gimblett and Shandler 2012b, 1–22.Google Scholar
Lee, Carol Ann
2006Anne Frank and Children of the Holocaust. New York: Viking Penguin.Google Scholar
Lejeune, Philippe
2004 “Auto-Genesis: Genetic Studies of Autobiographical Texts.” In Genetic Criticism: Texts and Avant-textes, edited by Jed Deppman, Daniel Ferrer, and Michael Groden, 193–217. Philadelphia, PA: Pennsylvania University Press.Google Scholar
Levy, Daniel, and Natan Sznaider
2006The Holocaust and Memory in the Global Age [orig. Erinnerung im globalen Zeitalter: Der Holocaust ]. Translated by Assenka Oksiloff. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
Lewis, Paul H.
2002Latin Fascist Elites: The Mussolini, Franco, and Salazar Regimes. Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
Magilow, Daniel H., and Lisa Silverman
2015Holocaust Representations in History: An Introduction. London: Bloomsbury Academic. Crossref logoGoogle Scholar
Marquerie, Alfredo
1957 “Las novedades teatrales del domingo de resurrección” [New theatre shows playing on Easter Sunday]. ABC, April 23 1957.Google Scholar
Martínez Tomás, Antonio
1957 “Comedia. Estreno de la comedia dramática ‘El diario de Ana Frank’, de Frances Goodrich y Albert Hackett” [Drama. Première of El diario de Ana Frank by Frances Goodrich and Albert Hackett]. La Vanguardia Española, February 13 1957.Google Scholar
1959 “Cinematografía. Fémina. ‘El diario de Ana Frank’” [Cinema. Women. El diario de Ana Frank ]. La Vanguardia Española. November 14 1959.Google Scholar
Mazur, Eric Michael
2011 “The Holocaust.” In Encyclopedia of Religion and Film, edited by Michael Eric Mazur, 225–231. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.Google Scholar
Merino, Raquel, and Rosa Rabadán
2002 “Censored Translations in Franco’s Spain: The TRACE Project – Threatre and Fiction (English-Spanish).” TTR: Traduction, Terminologie, Redaction 15 (2): 125–152. Crossref logoGoogle Scholar
Merti, Betty
1998The World of Anne Frank: A Complete Resource Guide. Portland, ME: Weston Walch.Google Scholar
Montejo Gurruchaga, Lucía
2013Discurso de autora. Género y censura en la narrativa española de posguerra [Woman’s authorial discourse. Gender and censorship in the Spanish postwar narrative]. Madrid: UNED.Google Scholar
Nahshon, Edna
2012 “Anne Frank from Page to Stage.” In Kirshenblatt-Gimblett and Shandler 2012b, 59–92.Google Scholar
Palmero Aranda, Fernando Antonio
2016El discurso antisemita en España (1936–1948). PhD diss. Universidad Complutense de Madrid.Google Scholar
Payne, Stanley G.
2011The Franco Regime, 1936–1975. Madison, WI: Wisconsin University Press.Google Scholar
Prose, Francine
2010Anne Frank: The Book, the Life, the Afterlife. New York: Harper Perennial.Google Scholar
Rosenfeld, Alvin
1991 “Popularization and Memory: The Case of Anne Frank.” In Lessons and Legacies I: The Meaning of the Holocaust in a Changing World, edited by Peter Hayes, 243–278. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press. Crossref logoGoogle Scholar
Ruiz Bautista, Eduardo
2008 “La larga noche del franquismo (1945–1966)” [The long Francoist night (1945–1966)]. In Tiempo de censura: la represión editorial durante el franquismo [Time of censorship: publishing censorship during Francoism], edited by Eduardo Ruiz Bautista, 77–109. Gijón: Ediciones Trea.Google Scholar
Schlegel, Nicholas G.
2015Sex, Sadism, Spain, and Cinema: The Spanish Horror Film. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
Shandler, Jeffrey
2012 “From Diary to Book: Text, Object, Structure.” In Kirshenblatt-Gimblett and Shandler 2012b, 25–58.Google Scholar
Stevens, George
1959The Diary of a Young Girl. Twentieth Century Fox. [Film]Google Scholar
Torchin, Leshu
2012 “Anne Frank’s Moving Images.” In Kirshenblatt-Gimblett and Shandler 2012b, 93–134.Google Scholar
Toury, Gideon
1995Descriptive Translation Studies and Beyond. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref logoGoogle Scholar
Vandaele, Jeroen
2010 “It Was What It Wasn’t. Translation and Francoism.” In Translation under Fascism, edited by Christopher Rundle and Kate Sturge, 84–116. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Crossref logoGoogle Scholar
Waaldijk, Berteke
2000 “Reading Anne Frank as a Woman.” In Anne Frank: Reflections on Her Life and Legacy, edited by Hyman Aaron Enzer and Sandra Solotaroff, 110–120. Urbana, IL: Illinois University Press.Google Scholar
Wade, Graham, and Gerard Garno
1997A New Look at Segovia: His Life, His Music. Pacific, MO: Mel Bay Publications.Google Scholar
White, Hayden
1973Metahistory: The Historical Imagination in Nineteenth-Century Europe. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
1992 “Historical Emplotment and the Problem of Truth.” In Probing the Limits of Representation: Nazism and the ‘Final Solution’, edited by Saul Friedlander, 37–53. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar