Translaboration in a film context: Stanley Kubrick’s collaborative approach to translation
Roma Tre University
This study explores the notion of translaboration in the context of audiovisual translation using Stanley
Kubrick’s Full Metal Jacket (1987) as a case study. Specifically, it explores the dynamics of translaboration in
the Italian version of Kubrick’s film by drawing on archival methods and sources to examine the material traces left by the
translation process. The study aims to unveil the translaborative dimension that characterized Kubrick’s approach to film
translation, pointing to the specificity of a collaborative interaction in which one participant holds ultimate authority.
Findings gleaned from translation-related material in the Stanley Kubrick Archive (University of the Arts, London) are combined
with insights from working documents found among the personal papers of Riccardo Aragno, who translated Kubrick’s last five films
into Italian for both dubbing and subtitling. Archival documents show that Kubrick was involved in collaborative work with his
translators, sometimes adopting an interventionist approach.
Film translation is a context where forms of collaboration are particularly prominent. As Nornes (2007, 221) reminds us, in dubbing the “translator” is in fact a collective entity rather than an individual, comprising “the team of technicians, translators and actors” who all take part in the process. In subtitling, where significantly fewer agents are involved in decision-making, translators are nevertheless “a link in a chain” (Díaz-Cintas and Remael 2007, 81). Di Giovanni (2016, 6) also highlights this collaboration in pointing out that “subtitlers hardly ever work alone on the linguistic operations involved in the overall subtitling process,” as the workflow entails at least two stages, one of which involves the intervention of proofreaders who revise the main translator’s work and who may impose a different interpretation of the source text.
1971A Clockwork Orange. UK and USA: Polaris Production, Hawk Films.
1987Full Metal Jacket. USA and UK: Hawk Films.
2017Filmworker. USA: Dogwoof.
Continuity and Spotting List
Full Metal Jacket. The Stanley Kubrick Archive. The University of the Arts, London. SK/16/4/2/12.
2017 “Entering the Translab: Translation as Collaboration, Collaboration as Translation, and the Third Space of ‘Translaboration’.” In Translaboration, edited by Alexa Alfer, special issue of Translation and Translanguaging in Multicultural Contexts 3 (3): 275–290.
2017 “Vladimir Nabokov and His Translators: Collaboration or Translating under Duress?” In Collaborative Translation: From the Renaissance to the Digital Age, edited by Anthony Cordingley and Céline Frigau Manning, 111–129. London: Bloomsbury.
eds.2017Collaborative Translation: From the Renaissance to the Digital Age. London: Bloomsbury.
Cordingley, Anthony, and Chiara Montini
eds.2015Towards a Genetics of Translation. Special issue of Linguistica Antverpiensia, New Series – Themes in Translation Studies 14.
De los Reyes Lozano, Julio
2015 “Genética del doblaje cinematográfico: La versión del traductor como proto-texto en el filme Rio.” Linguistica Antverpiensia, New Series – Themes in Translation Studies 14: 149–167.
De Higes Andino, Irene
2014 “The Translation of Multilingual Films: Modes, Strategies, Constraints and Manipulation in the Spanish Translations of It’s a free world…” Linguistica Antverpiensia, New Series – Themes in Translation Studies 13: 211–231.
2001 “Striving for Quality in Subtitling: The Role of a Good Dialogue List.” In (Multi)Media Translation: Concepts, Practices and Research, edited by Yves Gambier and Henrik Gottlieb, 199–211. Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Díaz-Cintas, Jorge, and Aline Remael
2007Audiovisual Translation: Subtitling. Manchester: St Jerome.
2017 “Author-Translator Collaborations: A Typological Survey”. In Collaborative Translation: From the Renaissance to the Digital Age, edited by Anthony Cordingley and Céline Frigau Manning, 91–110. London: Bloomsbury.
2013 “Multiple Translatorship.” In Authorial and Editorial Voices in Translation 1: Collaborative Relationships Between Authors, Translators, and Performers, edited by Hanne Jansen and Anna Wegener, 1–38. Montreal, QC: Éditions québécoises de l’œuvre, collection Vita Traductiva.
(2015) “ ‘Complete total final annihilating artistic control’: Stanley Kubrick and Postwar Hollywood.” In Stanley Kubrick: New Perspectives, edited by Tatjana Ljujic, Peter Krämer, and Richard Daniels, 48–61. London: Black Dog.
2017 “Günter Grass and His Translators: From a Collaborative Dynamic to an Apparatus of Control?” In Collaborative Translation: From the Renaissance to the Digital Age, edited by Anthony Cordingley and Céline Frigau Manning, 130–144. London: Bloomsbury.
2015 “Dubbing Directors and Dubbing Actors: Co-authors of Translation for Dubbing.” In Audiovisual Translation in a Global Context, edited by Rocío Baños Piñero and Jorge Díaz-Cintas, 253–265. Palgrave Macmillan: London.
2014 “La caja negra y el mal de archivio: defense de un análisis genético del doblaje cinematográfico.” In Última tendencias en la investigación sobre traducción para el doblaje, edited by Rocío Baños Piñero, special issue of TRANS: Revista de traductología 17: 51–69.
2013 “Accessible Filmmaking: Joining the Dots between Audiovisual Translation, Accessibility, and Filmmaking.” Journal of Specialised Translation 20: 201–223.
2019 “Exploring the Social Complexity of Translation with Assemblage Thinking.” In Complexity Thinking in Translation Studies: Methodological Considerations, edited by Kobus Marais and Reine Meylaerts, 104–127. London: Routledge.
2015 “Orality and Objectification: Danièle Huillet and Jean-Marie Straub, Filmmakers and Translators.” SubStance 44 (2): 47–65.
1992Through the Dubbing Glass: The Synchronization of American Motion Pictures into German, French and Spanish. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
2006Translating Milan Kundera. Clevendon: Multilingual Matters.
2014 “Translation and Transcreation in the Dubbing Process: A Genetic Approach.” Cultus: The Journal of Intercultural Mediation and Communication 7: 107–132.
2019a “Investigating the Genesis of Translated Films: A View from the Stanley Kubrick Archive.” Perspectives: Studies in Translation Theory and Practice 27 (2): 201–217.
2019b “Auteur Dubbing: Translation, Performance and Authorial Control in the Dubbed Versions of Stanley Kubrick’s Films.” In Reassessing Dubbing: Historical Approaches and Current Trends, edited by Irene Ranzato and Serenella Zanotti, 79–100. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.