From Translation Studies and audiovisual translation to media accessibility: Some research trends
Aline Remael,Nina Reviers and Reinhild Vandekerckhove
University of Antwerp
Recent developments in Translation Studies and translation practice have not only led to a profusion of approaches, but also to the development of new text forms and translation modes. Media Accessibility, particularly audio description (AD) and subtitling for the deaf and hard-of-hearing (SDH), is an example of such a ‘new’ mode. SDH has been evolving quickly in recent decades and new developments such as interlingual SDH and live subtitling with speech recognition bring it closer to established forms of translation and interpreting. On the one hand, interlingual SDH reintroduces Jakobson’s (1959) ‘translation proper’ while the use of speech recognition has led to the creation of a hybrid form that has affinities with both subtitling and interpreting. Audio description, for its part, cannot even be fitted into Jakobson’s ‘intersemiotic translation’ model since it involves translation from images into words. Research into AD is especially interesting since it rallies methods from adjacent disciplines, much in the same way that Holmes ( 1988) described TS when it was a fledgling discipline. In 2008, Braun set out a research agenda for AD and the wealth of topics and research approaches dealt with in her article illustrate the immense complexity of this field and the work still to be done. Although AD and SDH research have developed at different paces and are concerned with different topics, converging trends do appear. Particularly the role of technology and the concept of multimodality seem to be key issues. This article aims to give an overview of current research trends in both these areas. It illustrates the possibilities of technology-driven research – particularly popular in SDH and live-subtitling research – while at the same time underlining the value of individual, human-driven approaches, which are still the main ‘modus operandi’ in the younger discipline of AD where much basic research is still required.
Translation Studies (TS) has gone through many turns since Holmes presented his seminal outline on “The Name and Nature of Translation Studies” in 1972. Today the ‘technological turn’ appears to be dominant in TS, but research foci and their related research methods and questions are, to a large extent, accumulative phenomena. This accruement of approaches goes hand in hand with an increasing number of variables, mostly connected to digitization and the proliferation of target readers or audiences with different requirements. One central feature of this evolution is the ‘explosion’ of the boundaries of text (written and/or spoken) and the related ongoing development of new text forms and (their) translation modes.
2012 “ ‘Why Can’t You Wear Black Shoes Like the Other Mothers?’ Preliminary Investigation on the Italian Language of Audio Description.” In Perego 2012, 37–55.
2008 “Audio Description Research: State of the Art and Beyond.” Translation Studies in the New Millenium 6: 14–30.
2011 “Creating Coherence in Audio Description.” Meta 56 (3): 645–662.
Braun, Sabine, and Pilar Orero
2010 “Audio Description with Audio Subtitling – an Emergent Modality of Audiovisual Localisation.” Perspectives: Studies in Translatology 18 (3): 173–188.
Bywood, Lindsay, Martin Volk, Mark Fishel, and Panayota Georgakopoulou
2013 “Parallel Subtitle Corpora and Their Applications in Machine Translation and Translatology.” Perspectives: Studies in Translatology 21 (4): 595–610.
2010 “Opera Audio Description at Barcelona’s Liceu Theatre.” In New Insights into Audiovisual Translation and Media Accessibility, ed. by Jorge Diaz-Cintas, Anna Matamala, and Joseélia Neves, 227–237. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
Chmiel, Agnieszka, and Iwona Mazur
2012 “AD Reception Research: Some Methodological Considerations.” In Perego 2012, 57–80.
2013Translation in the Digital Age. London: Routledge.
Freddi, Maria, Maria Pavesi
2009 “The Pavia Corpus of Film Dialogue: Methodology and Research Rationale.” In Analysing Audiovisual Dialogue: Linguistic and Translational Insights, ed. by Maria Freddi, and Maria Pavesi, 95–100. Bologna: CLUEB.
2010 “Audio Description as Audio Drama – A Practitioner’s Point of View.” Perspectives: Studies in Translatology 18 (3): 205–213.
Fryer, Louise, and Jonathan Freeman
2012 “Presence in Those with and without Sight: Implications for Virtual Reality and Audio Description.” Journal of CyberTherapy & Rehabilitation 5 (1): 15–23.
2013 “The Position of Audiovisual Translation Studies.” In The Routledge Handbook of Translation Studies, ed. by Carmen Millán, and Francesca Bartrina, 45–59. New York: Routledge.
2013a “Perspektivierungsstrategien und -mittel kontrastiv: Die Verbalisierung der Figurenperspektive in der deutschen und finnischen Audiodeskription.” Trans-kom: Zeitschrift für Translationswissenschaft und Fachkommunikation 6 (1): 8–38.
2013b “Sampling Similarity in Image and Language – Figure and Ground in the Analysis of Filmic Audio Description.” SKY Journal of Linguistics 26: 87–115.
2009 “Audio Description in the Theatre and the Visual Arts: Images into Words. Audiovisual Translation.” In Language Transfer on Screen, ed. by Jorge Diaz Cintas, and Gunilla Anderman, 170–185. Basingstroke: Palgrave Macmillan
Holmes, James S
(1972) 1988 “The Name and Nature of Translation Studies.” In Translated! Papers on Literary Translation Studies, ed. by Raymond van den Broeck, 67–80. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
Hurtado Jimenez, Catalina, and Silvia Soler Gallegoa
2013 “Multimodality, Translation and Accessibility: a Corpus-based Study of Audio Description.” Perspectives: Studies in Translatology 20 (4): 577–594.
2011 “The Audio Description of Emotions and Gestures in Spanish-Spoken Films.” In Audiovisual Translation in Close-up: Practical and Theoretical Approaches, ed. by Adriana Şerban, Anna Matamala, and Jean-Marc Lavaur, 223–238. New York: Peter Lang.
2012 “Lyrics against Imaged. Music in Audio Description.” MONTI: Multidisciplinary in Audiovisual Translation 4: 233–254.
1959 “On Linguistic Aspects of Translation.” In On Translation, ed. by Reuben A. Brower, 232–239. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
2013 “Multimodality and Translation.” In The Routledge Handbook of Translation Studies, ed. by Carmen Millán, and Francesca Bartrina, 257–269. Routledge.
2012 “Making Meaning in AVT: Eye Tracking and Viewer Construction of Narrative.” Perspectives: Studies in Translatology 20 (1): 67–86.
Maszerowska, Anna, Anna Matamala, and Pilar Orero
eds.2014Audio Description. New Perspectives Illustrated. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
2016 “Machine Translation and Audio Description? Comparing Creation, Translation and Post-editing Efforts.” Journal of Translation and Interpreting 9(1): 64–87.
Mazur, Iwona, and Agnieszka Chmiel
2012 “Towards Common European Audio Description Guidelines: Results of the Pear Tree Project.” Perspectives: Studies in Translatology 20 (1): 5–23.
2012 “Multi-Sensory Approaches to (Audio) Describing Visual Art.” MONTI: Multidisciplinary in Audiovisual Translation 4: 277–293.
2012 “Entertainment and Translation in the Digital Era.” Translation Spaces 1: 123–141.
2012 “Film Reading for Writing Audio Descriptions: A Word Is Worth a Thousand Images?” In Perego 2012, 13–28.
Orero, Pilar, and Anna Vilaro
2012 “Eye Tracking Analysis of Minor Details in Films for Audio Description.” MONTI: Multidisciplinary in Audiovisual Translation 4: 295–312.
2013 “Introduction: Multimodality as Challenge and Resource for Translation.” The Journal of Specialised Translation 20: 2–14.
ed.2012Emerging Topics in Translation: Audio Description. Trieste: EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste.
Pereira, Ana, and Veronica Arnáiz Uzquiza
2010 “A Comprehensive Bibliography on Subtitling for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing from a Multidisciplinary Approach.” In Listening to Subtitles. Subtitles for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing, ed. by Anna Matamala, and Pilar Orero, 219–227. Bern: Peter Lang.
2007 “Sampling Subtitling for the Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing in Europe.” In Media for All. Subtitling for the Deaf, Audio Description, and Sign Language, ed. by Jorge Díaz-Cintas, Pilar Orero, and Aline Remael, 23–52. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
2012a “Audio Description with Audio Subtitling for Dutch Multilingual Films: Manipulating Textual Cohesion on Different Levels.” Meta 57 (2): 385–407.
2012b “For the Use of Sound. Film Sound Analysis for Audio Description: Some Key Issues.” MONTI: Multidisciplinary in Audiovisual Translation 4: 255–276.
Remael Aline, and Nina Reviers
2015 “Recreating Multimodal Cohesion in Audio Description: The Case of Audio Subtitling in Dutch Multilingual Films.” In New Voices in Translation Studies 13: 50–78.
Remael, Aline, Luuk Van Waes, and Mariëlle Leijten
2014 “Live Subtitling with Speech Recognition: How to Pinpoint the Challenges.” In Media and Translation: An Interdisciplinary Approach, ed. by Dror Abend, 121–148. New York: Bloomsbury.
Remael, Aline, and Gert Vercauteren
2010 “The Translation of Recorded Audio Description from English into Dutch.” Perspectives. Studies in Translatology 18 (3): 155–171.
2012 “Audio Description and Translation Studies: A Functional Text Type Analysis of the Audio Described Dutch Play Wintervogelchen.” In Audiovisual Translation across Europe: An Ever-Changing Landscape, ed. by Silvia Bruti, and Elena Di Giovanni, 193–207. Bern: Peter Lang.
Forthcoming. “On Context and Intersemiotic Cohesion in Audio Description.” Nitra: Department of Translation Studies FA CPU.
Reviers, Nina, Aline Remael, and Walter Daelemans
2015 “The Language of Audio Description in Dutch: Results of a Corpus Study.” In New Points of View on Audiovisual Translation and Media Accessibility, ed. by Anna Jankowska, and Agnieszka Szarkowska. Oxford: Peter Lang.
2009 “Standing on Quicksand: Hearing Viewer’s Comprehension and Reading Patterns of Respoken Subtitles for the News.” In New Insights into Audiovisual Translation and Media Accessibility. Media for All 2, ed. by Jorge Díaz-Cintas, Anna Matamala, and Josélia Neves, 175–194. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
2011Subtitling through Speech Recognition: Respeaking. Manchester: St. Jerome.
2007 “A Corpus-Based Analysis of Audio Description.” In Media for All. Subtitling for the Deaf, Audio Description, and Sign Language, ed. by Jorge Díaz-Cintas, Pilar Orero, and Aline Remael, 151–174. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
2011 “Text-to-Speech Audio Description: Towards Wider Availability of AD.” The Journal of Specialised Translation 15: 142–162.
Szarkowska, Agnieszka, and Anna Jankowska
2012 “Text-to-Speech Audio Description of Voiced-over Films. A Case Study of Audio Described Volver in Polish.” In Perego 2012, 81–98.
2007 “What Meets the Eye. Cognitive Narratology for Audio Description.” Perspectives: Studies in Translatology 20 (1): 87–102.
Van der Veer, Bart
2007 “De tolk als respeaker: een kwestie van training [the interpreter as respeaker: a matter of training].” Linguistica Antverpiensia NS-Themes in Translation Studies 6: 315–328.
Van Waes, Luuk, Mariëlle Leijten, and Aline Remael
2013 “Live Subtitling with Speech Recognition. Causes and Consequences of Text Reduction.” Across Languages and Cultures 14 (1): 15–46.
2012 “Narratological Approach to Content Selection in Audio Description. Towards a Strategy for the Description of Narratological Time.” MONTI: Multidisciplinary in Audiovisual Translation 4: 207–231.