Norms of translation

Christina Schäffner

Table of contents

Various labels have been used to describe the relationship between the source text and the target text, often in a binary opposition, such as literal translation vs. free translation, or word-for-word translation vs. sense-for-sense translation. With the development of more systematic, or ‘scientific’, reflections about translation in the second half of the 20th century, the concept of ‘equivalence’ was most frequently used to account for this relationship. What equivalence-based theories have in common is the attempt to define which texts are related to a source text by a translation relation and thus find criteria to set translation apart from other forms of secondary, or text-based text production (cf. Koller 1995).

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