On the face of it, it appears that the explicitation of contextual knowledge is consistent with Toury’s (1995) norm of acceptability rather than his norm of adequacy. This is because
this type of explicitation, which seeks to bridge the gap in readers’ contextual knowledge, enhances readability and is directed
towards the target audience. However, in this article I argue that the use of this type of explicitation actually demonstrates an
awareness of the importance of adhering to the source text, and may thus be aligned with adequacy norms. To support the argument,
I show that this type of explicitation seems to be more prevalent than ever before, using as an example a recent translation of a
story by O. Henry into Hebrew, in the context of Hebrew translated literature generally moving towards the norm of adequacy (Zoran 1990; Weissbrod 1992; Ben-Shahar 1994). This highlights the complexity of the relation between increased
explicitness and the notions of adequacy and acceptability.
Explicitation in translation is a multi-faceted phenomenon that has been dealt with extensively in the field of Translation Studies. The Dictionary of Translation Studies defines explicitation as follows:
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2011A Critical Introduction to Translation Studies. London: Continuum.
1999 “Investigating Norms.” In Translation and the (Re)location of Meaning: Selected Papers of the CETRA Research Seminars in Translation Studies 1994–1996, edited by Jeroen Vandaele, 7–21. Leuven: CETRA.
1993 “From ‘Is’ to ‘Ought’: Laws, Norms and Strategies in Translation Studies.” Target 5 (1): 1–20.
Dimitrova, Birgitta Englund
2005Expertise and Explicitation in the Translation Process. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
2012Øverås’s Third Code Revisited: An Investigation of Explicitation in Literary Translation. Master diss. Masaryk University.
1994Mental Spaces: Aspects of Meaning Construction in Natural Language. New York: Cambridge University Press.
1997Mappings in Thought and Language. New York: Cambridge University Press.
1997Paratexts: Thresholds of Interpretation. Translated by Jane E. Lewin. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Halliday, Michael Alexander Kirkwood
1973Explorations in the Functions of Language. London: Edward Arnold.
Hansen-Schirra, Silvia, Stella Neumann, and Erich Steiner
2007 “Cohesive Explicitness and Explicitation in an English–German Translation Corpus.” Information Structuring Resources in Contrast, edited by Bergljot Behrens, Cathrine Fabricius-Hansen, Hilde Hasselgård, and Stig Johansson. Special issue of Languages in Contrast 7 (2): 241–265.
2008Ben ironia lehumor: hatsa’at model pragmati mavhin behitbases al nituah textuali shel yetsirot safrutiot bamakor uvatargum [Between Irony and Humor: A Pragmatic Model Based on Textual Analysis of Literary Works and Their Translations]. PhD diss. Bar-Ilan University.
1996 “Back-translation as a Tool for Detecting Explicitation Strategies in Translation.” In Translation Studies in Hungary, edited by Kinga Klaudy, Jose Lambert, and Aniko Sohár, 99–114. Budapest: Scholastica.
2001 “The Asymmetry Hypothesis: Testing the Asymmetric Relationship Between Explicitations and Implicitations.” Paper presented at the Third International Congress of the European Society for Translation Studies: Claims, Changes and Challenges in Translation Studies, Copenhagen, Denmark, 30 August – 1 September.
2003Languages in Translation: Lectures on the Theory, Teaching and Practice of Translation. Budapest: Scholastica.
2009 “The Asymmetry Hypothesis: Testing the Asymmetric Relationship Between Explicitations and Implicitations.” In Translators and Their Readers: In Homage to Eugene A. Nida, edited by Rodica Dimitriu and Miriam Shlesinger, 283–303. Brussels: Les Editions du Hazard.
2006 “Al hanhara bitargumim lasefer ‘Haminhara’ leErnesto Sábato [On explicitation in translations of Ernesto Sábato’s ‘The Tunnel’].” In Ivrit Safa Haya [Hebrew – A Living Language, volume IV], edited by Gideon Toury and Rin Ben-Shahar, 243–258. Tel-Aviv: The Porter Institute.
2010/2016 “Descriptive Translation Studies – DTS (revised version).” In Handbook of Translation Studies, edited by Yves Gambier and Luc van Doorslaer, 94–104. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
2008 “Explicitation Revisited: Bringing the Reader into the Picture.” trans-kom 1 (1): 20–35.
1988 “Pragmatics and the Explicitation Hypothesis.” TTR: Traduction, Terminologie, Rédaction 1 (2): 106–113.
1989 “The Translation Process: An Experimental Study.” In The Translation Process, edited by Candace Séguinot, 21–42. Toronto: H.G. Publications.
Shuttleworth, Mark, and Moira Cowie
2014Dictionary of Translation Studies. New York: Routledge.
Toledano Buendía, Carmen
2013 “Listening to the Voice of the Translator: A Description of Translator’s Notes as Paratextual Elements.” Translation & Interpreting 5 (2): 149–162.
1980In Search of a Theory of Translation. Tel Aviv: The Porter Institute for Poetics and Semiotics, Tel Aviv University.
1995Descriptive Translation Studies – and Beyond. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
2004 “Probabilistic Explanations in Translation Studies: Welcome as They Are, Would They Qualify as Universals?” In Translation Universals: Do They Exist?, edited by Anna Mauranen and Pekka Kujamäki, 15–32. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Van Beveren, Amélie, Gert de Sutter, and Timothy Colleman
2018 “Questioning Explicitation in Translation Studies: A Multifactorial Corpus Investigation of the om-Alternation in Translated and Original Dutch.” Paper presented at the 5th Using Corpora in Contrastive and Translation Studies (UCCTS) conference, Louvain, Belgium, 12–14 September.
Van Leuven-Zwart, Kitty
1989 “Translation and Original: Similarities and Dissimilarities I.” Target 1 (2): 151–181.
Van Leuven-Zwart, Kitty
1990 “Translation and Original: Similarities and dissimilarities II.” Target 2 (1): 69–95.
Vinay, Jean-Paul, and Jean Darbelnet
1958/1995Stylistique comparée du français et de l’anglais: Méthode de traduction. London: Didier.
1990 “Linguistic Interference in Literary Translations from English to Hebrew of the 1960s and 1970s.” Target 2 (2): 165–181.
1992 “Explicitation in Translations of Prose-Fiction from English to Hebrew as a Function of Norms.” Multilingua 11 (2): 153–171.
1996 “ ‘Curiouser and curiouser’: Hebrew Translations of Wordplay in Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland.” The Translator 11 (1): 219–234.
1998 “Yahasim ben-textualyim kibeayat targum vehahitmodedut ita bitargumei proza meanglit leivrit [Inter-textual relations as a translation problem faced by translators of prose-fiction from English into Hebrew].” Dappim Limehkar Bisafrut [Research in Literature] 11: 297–312.
2009 “Philosophy of Translation Meets Translation Studies: Three Hebrew Translations of Kipling’s ‘If’ in Light of Paul Ricoeur’s ‘Third Text’ and Gideon Toury’s ‘Adequate Translation’.” Target 21 (1): 58–73.
1990Past and Present in Hebrew Literary Translation: A Lecture and Exhibition Catalogue. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Library.