Extended Translation: A Sociocognitive Research Agenda

Hanna Risku and Florian Windhager

Abstract

Consideration of current developments in cognitive science is indispensable when defining research agendas addressing cognitive aspects of translation. One such development is the recognition of the extended nature of human cognition: Cognition is not just an information manipulation process in the brain, it is contextualised action embedded in a body and increasingly mediated by technologies and situated in its socio-cultural environment. Parallel developments are found in neighbouring disciplines, such as sociology with its actor-network and activity theories. This paper examines these approaches, their shared methodological tenets (i.e., ethnographic field studies) and the implications of the situated cognition approach for describing the cognitive aspects of translation, using a translation management case study to discuss conceptual and methodological issues.

Keywords:
Table of contents

This paper discusses concepts used in the relatively young paradigms of situated and distributed cognition and examines their implications for research into the cognitive aspects of translation. Cognitive science has seen the development of notable extensions within the last decades by emphasising the increasing importance of the social and physical environment. Viewed from this perspective, cognition is the result of the constant interaction between people and their social and material environments—a distributed and highly adaptive process, which weaves—and is woven by—networks of actors and artefacts.

Full-text access is restricted to subscribers. Log in to obtain additional credentials. For subscription information see Subscription & Price. Direct PDF access to this article can be purchased through our e-platform.

References

Abdallah, Kristiina
2011 “Quality Problems in AVT Production Networks: Reconstructing an Actor-Network in the Subtitling Industry.” In ”Audiovisual Translation in Close-up: Practical and Theoretical Approaches, ed. by Adriana, Serban, Anna Matamala, and Jean-Marc Lavaur, 173–186. Bern: Peter Lang. Google Scholar
Bogic, Anna
2010 “Uncovering the Hidden Actors with the Help of Latour: The ‘Making’ of the Second Sex.” MonTI 2: 173–192.   CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Buzelin, Hélène
2005 “Unexpected Allies: How Latour’s Network Theory Could Complement Bourdieusian Analyses in Translation Studies.” The Translator 11 (2): 193–218.   CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bourdieu, Pierre
2001Science de la science et réflexivité. Paris: Éditions Raisons d´Agir. Google Scholar
Callon, Michel
1986 “Some Elements of a Sociology of Translation: Domestication of the Scallops and the Fishermen of St Brieuc Bay.” In ”Power, ed. by John Law, 196–233. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Google Scholar
Clark, Andy
1997Being there. Putting Brain, Body, and World Together Again. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
2008Supersizing the Mind: Embodiment, Action, and Cognitive Extension. Oxford: Oxford University Press.   CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Clark, Andy, and David J. Chalmers
1998 “The Extended Mind.” Analysis 58 (1): 7–19.   CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Donmoyer, Robert
2000 “Generalizability and the Single-Case Study.” In ”Case Study Method: Key Issues, Key Texts, ed. by Roger Gomm, Martyn Hammersley, and Peter Foster, 45–68. London, Thousand Oaks, New Delhi: Sage. Google Scholar
Engeström, Yrjö
1990Learning, Working, and Imagining: Twelve Studies in Activity Theory. Helsinki: OrientaKonsultit Oy. Google Scholar
Holz-Mänttäri, Justa
1993 “Textdesign — verantwortlich und gehirngerecht.” In ”Traducere Navem, ed. by Justa Holz-Mänttäri and Christiane Nord, 301–320. Tampere: Tampereen yliopisto. Google Scholar
Hutchins, Edwin
1995aCognition in the Wild. Cambridge: The MIT Press. Google Scholar
1995b “How a Cockpit Remembers its Speeds.” Cognitive Science 19: 265–288.   CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Kaptelinin, Victor, and Bonnie A. Nardi
2006Acting with Technology. Activity Theory and Interaction Design. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Kuutti, Kari
1991a “Activity Theory and its Applications in Information Systems Research and Design.” In ”Information Systems Research Arena of the 90’s, ed. by Hans-Erik Nissen, Heinz-Karl Klein, and Rudy A. Hirschheim, 529–550. Amsterdam: North-Holland. Google Scholar
1991b “The Concept of Activity as a Basic Unit for CSCW Research.” In ”Proceedings of the 2nd ECSCW, 1991, ed. by Liam J. Bannon, Mike Robinson, and Kjeld Schmidt, 249–264. Amsterdam: Kluwer. Google Scholar
Latour, Bruno
1986 “Visualization and Cognition.” Knowledge and Society 6: 1–40.Google Scholar
2005Reassembling the Social: An Introduction to Actor-Network Theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Google Scholar
[ p. 45 ]
Leontiev, Aleksej N
1978/1987Activity, Consciousness, and Personality. Translated by Marie J. Hall. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: PrenticeHall.Google Scholar
Martín de León, Celia
2008 “Translation in the Wild: Traductología y cognicíon situada.” In ”La traducción del future: mediación lingüística y cultural en el siglo XXI. Vol II. La traducción y su entorno, ed. by Luis Pegenaute, Janet DeCesaris, Mercè Tricás, and Elisenda Bernal, 55–64. Barcelona: PPU. Google Scholar
Menary, Richard
(ed) 2010The Extended Mind. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.   CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Oyserman, Daphna
2011 “Culture as Situated Cognition: Cultural Mindsets, Cultural Fluency, and Meaning Making.” European Review of Social Psychology 22 (1): 164–214.   CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Prunč, Erich
2007 “Zur Konstruktion von Translationskulturen.” In ”Translationskultur: Ein innovatives und produktives Konzept, ed. by Larisa Schippel, 19–41. Berlin: Frank & Timme. Google Scholar
Risku, Hanna
2010 “Lotsen im soziokulturellen Luftraum — TranslatorInnen im Tower transkultureller Fachkommunikation.” In ”Translationskultur revisited. Festschrift für Erich Prunč, ed. by Nadja Grbič, Gernot Hebenstreit, Gisella Vorderobermeier, and Michaela Wolf, 173–189. Tübingen: Stauffenburg. Google Scholar
Risku, Hanna, Nicole Rossmanith, Andreas Reichelt, and Lukas Zenk
To appear. “ Translation in the Network Economy: A Follow-up Study.” In Proceedings of the 6th EST Conference “Tracks and Treks in Translation Studies” ed. by Magdalena Bartlomiejczyk, Reine Meylaerts, Sonia Vandepitte, and Catherine Way Amsterdam John Benjamins
Schäffner, Christina
1997 “From ‘Good’ to ‘Functionally Appropriate’: Assessing Translation Quality.” Current Issues in Language and Society 4 (1): 1–5.   CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Simeoni, Daniel
1998 “The Pivotal Status of the Translator’s Habitus.” Target 10 (1): 1–39.   CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Snell-Hornby, Mary, Zuzana Jettmarová, and Klaus Kaindl
(eds) 1997Translation as Intercultural Communication. Selected Papers from the EST Congress, Prague 1995. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.   CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Sperber, Dan, and Lawrence Hirschfeld
1999“Culture, Cognition, and Evolution.” In MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences, ed. by Robert Wilson and Frank Keil, cxi–cxxxii. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Google Scholar
Susam-Sarajeva, Şebnem
2009 “The Case Study Research Method in Translation Studies.” The Interpreter and Translator Trainer 3 (1): 37–56.   CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Vorderobermeier, Gisella
2008 “Migration als Übersetzung: Versuch einer Annäherung aus soziokognitiver Sicht.” In ”“Meine Sprache grenzt mich ab…” Transkulturalität und kulturelle Übersetzung in Kontext von Migration, ed. by Gisella Vorderobermeier Michaela Wolf, 37–50. Vienna: LIT. Google Scholar