Speaker positioning in interpreter-mediated press conferences
This article investigates potential effects which (the recontextualisation of) interpreted discourse can have on the positioning of participants. The discursive event which forms the basis of the analysis are international press conferences which bring politicians and journalists together. The dominant question addressed is: (How) do interpreter-mediated encounters influence the positioning of participants and thus the construction of interactional and social roles? The article illustrates that methods of (critical) discourse analysis can be used to identify positioning strategies which are employed by participants in such triadic exchanges. The data come from press conferences which involve English, German, and French as source and target languages.
Political communication across national borders often involves translation and interpreting. Discursive practices in the domain of politics (e.g., election campaigns) result in institutional types of political discourse (e.g., coalition treaty). Some of these discursive events (e.g., bilateral meetings of heads of government, international press conferences) are mediated by an interpreter, or texts which are the outcome of meetings (e.g., agreements) are translated.
[ p. 438 ]References
1997 “Non-cognitive Constraints and Interpreter Strategies in Political Interviews.” In Translating Sensitive Texts: Linguistic Aspects, ed. by Karl Simms, 111–129. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
2006 “Contextualization in Translator- and Interpreter-Mediated Events.” Journal of Pragmatics 38 (3): 321–337.
Baker, Paul, Costas Gabrielatos, Majid Khosravinik, Michał Krzyżanowski, Tony McEnery, and Ruth Wodak
2008 “A Useful Methodological Synergy? Combining Critical Discourse Analysis and Corpus Linguistics to Examine Discourses of Refugees and Asylum Seekers in the UK Press.” Discourse & Society 19 (3): 273–306.
2006 “Critical Discourse Analysis of Political Press Conferences.” Discourse & Society 17 (2): 173–203.
Bull, Peter, and Anita Fetzer
2006 “Who are We and Who Are You? The Strategic Use of Forms of Address in Political Interviews.” Text & Talk 26 (1): 3–37.
Clayman, Steven E., and John Heritage
2002aThe News Interview. Journalists and Public Figures on the Air. Studies in Interactional Sociolinguistics 16. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Clayman, Steven E., and John Heritage
2002b “Questioning Presidents: Journalistic Deference and Adversarialness in the Press Conferences of Eisenhower and Reagan.” Journal of Communication 52 (4): 749–775.
Ekström, Mats, and Marianna Patrona
eds.2011Talking Politics in Broadcast Media. Cross-cultural Perspectives on Political Interviewing, Journalism and Accountability. Discourse Approaches to Politics, Society and Culture 42. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
2007 “Challenges in Political Interviews: An Intercultural Analysis.” In Political Discourse in the Media, ed. by Anita Fetzer and Gerda Lauerbach, 163–195. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Fetzer, Anita, and Peter Bull
2013 “Political Interviews in Context.” In Analyzing Genres in Political Communication, ed. by Piotr Cap and Urszula Okulska, 73–99. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Hatim, Basil, and Ian Mason
1990Discourse and the Translator. London: Longman.
Heritage, John, and Steven E. Clayman
2013 “The Changing Tenor of Questioning over Time. Tracking a Question Form across US Presidential News Conferences, 1953-2000.” Journalism Practice 7 (4): 481–501.
ed.2001Triadic Exchanges. Studies in Dialogue Interpreting. Manchester: St. Jerome.
2011 “The Accountability Interview, Politics and Change in UK Public Service Broadcasting.” In Talking Politics in Broadcast Media. Cross-cultural Perspectives on Political Interviewing, Journalism and Accountability, ed. by Mats Ekström and Marianna Patrona, 33–55. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
2012Evaluation in Translation. Critical Points of Translator Decision-Making. Abingdon: Routledge.
2012a “Press Conferences and Recontextualisation.” In Ensayos sobre traducción jurídica e institucional. Essays on Legal and Institutional Translation, ed. by Icíar Alonso Araguás, Jesús Baigorri Jalón, and Helen J.L. Campbell, 69–83. Granada: Editorial Comares.
[ p. 439 ]
2012b “Unknown Agents in Translated Political Discourse.” Target 24 (1): 103–125.
2012c “Follow-Ups and Interpreter-Mediated Discourse.” In Proceedings of the ESF Strategic Workshop on Follow-Ups across Discourse Domains: A Cross-cultural Exploration of Their Forms and Functions, ed. by Anita Fetzer, Elda Weizman, and Elisabeth Reber, 236–247. Würzburg: Universität Würzburg. http://opus.bibliothek.uni-wuerzburg.de/volltexte/2012/7165/
2015 “Follow-Ups in Interpreter-Mediated Interviews and Press Conferences.” In Follow-Ups in Political Discourse: Explorations across Contexts and Discourse Domains, ed. by Elda Weizman and Anita Fetzer, 205–230. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
van Dijk, Teun A
2008Discourse and Power. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
2000 “Co-constructing Yeltsin – Explorations of an Interpreter-Mediated Political Interview.” In Intercultural Faultlines. Research Models in Translation Studies I: Textual and Cognitive Aspects, ed. by Maeve Olohan, 233–252. Manchester: St. Jerome.
2009 “Clinton’s Laughter: On Translation and Communication in TV News.” CTIS Occasional Papers 4: 71–86.
2008Positioning in Media Dialogue. Dialogue Studies 3. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Wodak, Ruth, and Michael Meyer
eds.2001Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis. London: Sage.