翻訳に対するメタファー [Metaphors for translation]

ジェイムズ・サンタンドレ

大久保友博による翻訳

目次

ヨーロッパ諸言語において〈翻訳〉を表す語の原義がそもそもメタファー[隠喩]であること(おおむね〈移す〉〈運ぶ〉の意)を考えると、 翻訳プロセス が様々な文化・時代で通例、比喩的な言葉を用いて説明されてきたことも、驚くに当たらない。それどころかギュルダンの主張(Guldin 2010)によれば、翻訳ならびにメタファーの両用語は、互いが互いの訳でありなおかつ互いのメタファーである点を見ても、根の深いところで一つなのだという。翻訳を説かんとする比喩表現は世に溢れかえっており、その多様ぶりには驚かされる。“les belles infidèles”(不実の美女)や“traduttori, traditore”(翻訳者は反逆者)といった警句をはじめ、翻訳者は文化の架け橋であるとか、翻訳は古酒を新しい皮袋へ注ぐプロセスであるといった広く応用が利くわかりやすいメタファー、さらに真正の証人あるいは錬金術などといった肯定的メタファーに対し、翻訳者は著者の奴隷か猿真似という否定的なもの、また鏡または導管とする受動的メタファーもあれば、マエストロだとか巨匠であるという能動的なものもあり、翻訳者はミツバチないし象を説明する盲人というかなり奇抜なものまである。

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