Formulaic speech in the L2 classroom: An attempt at identification and classification

Marie Girard and Claude Sionis


This study looks into one context of Formulaic Speech (FS) usage: The partial L2 immersion class. It tries to define and classify FS according to Raupach’s contextual list (1984) and lexical criteria as well as differentiating it from creative speech. FS is presented mostly as a pragmatic concept challenging the usual conceptions of language acquisition as an analytical process. Also challenged is the idea that language production is based on analysis of the input followed by production out of parsed output. In a Second Language Acquisition perspective, FS is shown as being a temporary stage of acquisition which, among other aspects, enables the speaker to reach idiomaticity in his or her L2 and thereby efficient communication with native speakers.

Quick links
A browser-friendly version of this article is not yet available. View PDF
Aijmer, K
(1998) Conversational Routines in English. London: Longman.Google Scholar
Arnaud, P., & H. Bejoint
(1992) Vocabulary in Applied Linguistics. London: MacMillan. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bachman, L.F
(1990) Fundamental Considerations in Language Testing. Oxford. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Baigent, M
(1996) Speaking in Chunks: An investigation into the use of multi-word phrases in spoken language by advanced learners of English. MSc Thesis in Teaching English, Aston University. http://​www​.les​.aston​.ac​.uk​/lsu​/diss​/m​.baigent​.html
Bohn, O
(1986) Formulas, frame structures, and stereotypes in early syntactic development: Some new evidence from L2 acquisition. Linguistics 24: 185-202. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bolinger, D
(1975) Meaning and memory. Forum Linguisticum 1: 2-14.Google Scholar
Bygate, M
(1988) Units of oral expression and language learning in small group interaction. Applied Linguistics 9.1: 59-82. Crossref  BoPGoogle Scholar
Clark, R
(1974) Performing without competence. Journal of Child Language 1: 1-10. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Corder, S.P
(1967) The significance of learners’ errors. International Review of Applied Linguistics 5: 161-9. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Coulmas, F
(1979) On the sociolinguistic relevance of routine formulae. Journal of Pragmatics 3: 239-266. Crossref  BoPGoogle Scholar
(1981) Conversational routine: Explorations in standardized communicative situations and prepatterned speech. The Hague: Mouton.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Cowie, A
(ed.) (1994) Phraseology: Theory, analysis and applications. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Cruttenden, A
(1981) Item-learning and system-learning. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 10: 79-88. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Dulay, H., & M. Burt
(1075) A new approach to discovering universals of child second language acquisition. In D. Dato (ed.), Developmental psycholinguistics (Monograph Series on Language and Linguistics) 1977 Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, pp. 209-233.Google Scholar
Ellis, R
(1994) The Study of Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Ervin-Tripp, S
(1973) Some strategies for the first two years. In A. Dil (ed.), Language Acquisition and Communicative Choice. Stanford: Stanford University Press.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Hakuta, K
(1974) Prefabicated patterns and the emergence of structure in second language acquisition. Language Learning 24: 297-297. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hatch, E.M
(1972) Some studies in language learning. UCLA Workpapers on Teaching English as a Second Language 6: 29-36.Google Scholar
(1983) Psycholinguistics. A second language perspective. Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House.Google Scholar
Kecskes, I
(2000) A cognitive-pragmatic approach to situation-bound utterances. Journal of Pragmatics 32.6: 605-625. Crossref  BoPGoogle Scholar
Kiefer, K
(1985) How to account for situational meaning? Quaderni di Semantica 2.85: 288-295.Google Scholar
(1996) Bound utterances. Language Sciences 18.1-2: 575-587. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Klein, W
(1986) Second Language Acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Krashen, S., & R. Scarcella
(1978) On routines and patterns in second language acquisition and performance. Language Learning 28: 283-300. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Larsen-Freeman, D., & M.H. Long
(1991) An introduction to second language acquisition research. London: Longman.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Lyons, J
(1968) Introduction to Theoretical Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Miller, J., & R. Weinert
(1998) Spontaneous Spoken Language. Syntax and Discourse. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Nattinger, J., & J. De Carrico
(1992) Lexical Phrases and Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Nemser, W
(1971) Approximate systems of foreign language learners. International Review of Applied Linguistics 9: 115-123. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Pawley, A., & F.H. Syder
(1983) Two puzzles for linguistic theory: Native-like selection and native-like fluency. In J.C. Richards & R.W. Schmidt (eds.), Language and Communication. London: Longman, pp. 191- 226.Google Scholar
Peters, A.M
(1976) Language learning strategies: Does the whole equal the sum of the parts? Language 53: 560-573. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(1983) The units of language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Radford, A
(1997) Syntactic theory and the structure of English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(1998) Syntactic Theory and the Acquisition of English Syntax. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Raupach, M
(1984)  Formulae in Second Language Production . In H. Dechert, et al.. (eds.), Second Language Productions. Tübingen: Narr.Google Scholar
Rescoria, L., & S. Okuda
(1987) Modular patterns in second language acquisition. Applied Psycholinguistics 8: 281-308. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Selinker, L
(1972) Interlanguage. Interlanguage Review of Applied Linguistics 10: 209-231.Google Scholar
Skehan, P
(1998) A Cognitive Approach to Language learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Taylor, J.R
(1989) Lexical Categorization. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Wagner-Gough, J
(1975) Comparative studies in second language learning. CAL ERIC/CLL Series on Languages and Linguistics 26.Google Scholar
Weinert, R
(1995) The role of formulaic language in second language acquisition: A review. Applied Linguistics 16.2: 180-205. Crossref  BoPGoogle Scholar
(1979) Explorations in Applied Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Wong-Fillmore, L
(1982) The second time around: Cognitive and social strategies in SLA. Language Learning 32: 53-68. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Wray, A
(2000) Formulaic sequences in second language teaching: Principle and practice. Applied Linguistics 21.4: 463-489. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2002) Formulaic Language and the Lexicon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref  BoPGoogle Scholar