The pragmatic perspective

Jef Verschueren

Table of contents

The view behind this Handbook defines pragmatics briefly as the cognitive, social, and cultural science of language and communication. This introductory chapter is intended to explain why a highly diversified field of scholarship such as pragmatics can be regarded as a potentially coherent enterprise. It presents some historical notes about pragmatics as a wide and highly interdisciplinary field of inquiry; a discussion of problems related to the delimitation of this field as well as to methodology and the status of evidence in pragmatics; a full explanation of the notion of ‘pragmatics’ underlying the Handbook of Pragmatics, i.e. one that defines pragmatics as a perspective on language rather than as a component of a linguistic theory; and a sketch of a proposal as to how such a perspective could lead to a general frame of reference within which a diversity of research results can be fruitfully compared and which may itself lead to the formulation of useful research strategies.

Full-text access is restricted to subscribers. Log in to obtain additional credentials. For subscription information see Subscription & Price.

References

Anscombre, J.-C.
1979“Délocutivité benvenistienne, délocutivité généralisée et performativité.” Langue française 42: 69–84. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Apel, K.-O.
1989“Linguistic meaning and intentionality.” In Semiotics and Pragmatics, ed. by G. Deledalle, 19–70. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Ariel, M.
2008Pragmatics and grammar. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2010Defining pragmatics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Atkinson, J.M. and J. Heritage
(eds.) 1984Structures of social action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Auer, P. and A. Di Luzio
(eds.) 1992The contextualization of language. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref  BoPGoogle Scholar
Austin, J.L.
1962How to do things with words. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Authier-Revuz, J., M. Doury and S. Reboul-Touré
(eds.) 2003Parler des mots: Le fait autonymique en discours. Paris: Presses Sorbonne Nouvelle. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bakhtin, M.M.
1981The dialogic imagination. Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
Bara, B.G.
2010Cognitive pragmatics: The mental processes of communication. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bar-Hillel, Y.
(ed.) 1971Pragmatics of natural languages. Dordrecht: Reidel.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Bartlett, F.C.
1932Remembering. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Barwise, J. and J. Perry
1983Situations and attitudes. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Bates, E.
1976Language and context. New York: Academic Press.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Bateson, G.
1972Steps to an ecology of mind. Worcester, MA: Chandler.Google Scholar
Benveniste, E.
1966Problèmes de linguistique générale. Paris: Gallimard.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Berger, P.L.
1992“Sociology.” Society 30 (1): 12–18. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bernicot, J.
1992Les actes de langage chez l'enfant. Paris: Presses University de France.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Bernicot, J., A. Trognon, M. Guidetti and M. Musiol
(eds.) 2002Pragmatique et psychologie. Nancy: Presses Universitaires de Nancy. Crossref  BoPGoogle Scholar
Berrendonner, A.
1981Eléments de pragmatique linguistique. Paris: Editions de Minuit.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Bertuccelli Papi, M.
1993Che cos’è la pragmatica. Milan: Bompiani.Google Scholar
Birnbacher, D. and A. Burkhardt
(eds.) 1985Sprachspiel und methode. Berlin: De Gruyter.  BoP CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Blakemore, D.
1992Understanding utterances. Oxford: Blackwell.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Blommaert, J.
(ed.) 1999Language ideological debates. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Crossref  BoPGoogle Scholar
Blum-Kulka, S., J. House and G. Kasper
(eds.) 1989Cross-cultural pragmatics. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Bolinger, D.
1968Aspects of language. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Bourdieu, P.
1982Ce que parler veut dire. Paris: Fayard.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Briggs, C.
1986Learning how to ask. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref  BoPGoogle Scholar
Bronowski, J.
1973The ascent of man. New York: Little, Brown and Co.Google Scholar
Brown, P. and S. Levinson
1987Politeness: Some universals in language usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Bruner, J.
1990Acts of meaning. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Bublitz, W. and A. Hübler
(eds.) 2007Metapragmatics in use. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref  BoPGoogle Scholar
Bühler, K.
1934Sprachtheorie. Frankfurt: Fischer.Google Scholar
Burton-Roberts, N.
(ed.) 2007Pragmatics. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Chafe, W.L.
(ed.) 1980The pear stories. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Chomsky, N.
1965Aspects of the theory of syntax. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
1980Rules and representations. Oxford: Blackwell.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Cicourel, A.V.
1982“Interviews, surveys, and the problem of ecological validity.” The American Sociologist 17: 11–20.Google Scholar
Clark, H.H.
1996Using language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Clark, H.H. and E.V. Clark
1977Psychology and language. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Cole, P.
(ed.) 1981Radical pragmatics. New York: Academic Press.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Cornulier, B. De
1985Effets de sens. Paris: Editions de Minuit.Google Scholar
Coulthard, M. and A. Johnson
2007An introduction to forensic linguistics: Language in evidence. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Cummings, L.
2005Pragmatics: A multidisciplinary perspective. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
2009Clinical pragmatics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref  BoPGoogle Scholar
Cutting, J.
2008Pragmatics and discourse: A resource book for students, (2nd ed). London: Routledge.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Dahl, Ö.
(ed.) 1977Logic, pragmatics and grammar. Sweden: Göteborg University, Dept. of Linguistics.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Daneš, F.
(ed.) 1974Papers on functional sentence perspective. Prague: Academia.  BoP CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Dascal, M.
1983Pragmatics and the philosophy of mind 1. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.  BoP CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Davidson, D. and G. Harman
(eds.) 1972Semantics of natural language. Dordrecht: Reidel.  BoP CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Davis, S.
(ed.) 1991Pragmatics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Deledalle, G.
(ed.) 1989Semiotics and pragmatics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref  BoPGoogle Scholar
Dijk, T.A. Van
1978Taal en handelen. Bussum: Coutinho.Google Scholar
1981Studies in the pragmatics of discourse. The Hague: Mouton.Google Scholar
Dik, S.
1978Functional grammar. Amsterdam: North Holland.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Dirven, R. and V. Fried
1987Functionalism in linguistics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref  BoPGoogle Scholar
Ducrot, O.
1972Dire et ne pas dire. Paris: Hermann.  BoPGoogle Scholar
1973La preuve et le dire. Paris: Mame.  BoPGoogle Scholar
1980Les échelles argumentatives. Paris: Editions de Minuit.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Duranti, A. and C. Goodwin
(eds.) 1992Rethinking context. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  BoP CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Enfield, N.
2010Human sociality at the heart of language [Inaugural lecture]. Nijmegen: Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.Google Scholar
Enfield, N. and S.C. Levinson
(eds.) 2006Roots of human sociality: Culture, cognition and interaction. Oxford: Berg.Google Scholar
Errington, J.J.
1988Structure and style in javanese. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Ervin-Tripp, S.M.
1973Language acquisition and communicative choice. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Fauconnier, G.
1985Mental spaces. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Fetzer, A. and E. Oishi
(eds.) 2011Context and contexts. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref  BoPGoogle Scholar
Fillmore, C.J.
1971“Types of lexical information.” In ed. by D.D. Steinberg and L.A. Jakobovits, 370–392.Google Scholar
1972“Subjects, speakers, and roles.” In ed. by D. Davidson and G. Harman, 1–24. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
1975“An alternative to checklist theories of meaning.” Proceedings of the 1st Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society 123–131.Google Scholar
Firbas, J.
1983“On the concepts of scene and perspective in fillmore's approach and in that of functional sentence perspective.” In Languages in function, ed. by S. Rot, 101–107. Budapest.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Firth, J.R.
1964The tongues of men [1937] and speech [1930]. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Foucault, M.
1966Les mots et les choses. Paris: Gallimard.Google Scholar
Garfinkel, H.
1967Studies in ethnomethodology. New York: Prentice-Hall. Crossref  BoPGoogle Scholar
Gazdar, G.J.M.
1979Pragmatics. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Ghiglione, R. and A. Trognon
1993Où va la pragmatique? Grenoble: Presses University de Grenoble.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Givón, T.
1989Mind, code and context. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Goffman, E.
1974Frame analysis. New York: Harper and Row.  BoPGoogle Scholar
1981Forms of talk. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Golopentia, S.
1988Les voies de la pragmatique. Saratoga, CA: Anma Libri.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Green, G.
1996Pragmatics and natural language understanding. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Grice, H.P.
1975“Logic and conversation.” In Syntax and Semantics, vol. 3, ed. by P. Cole and J.L. Morgan, 41–58. New York: Academic Press.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Guenthner, F. and S.J. Schmidt
(eds.) 1979Formal semantics and pragmatics for natural languages. Dolrdrecht: Reidel.Google Scholar
Gumperz, J.J.
1982Discourse strategies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Gumperz, J.J. and D.H. Hymes
(eds.) 1972Directions in sociolinguistics. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
Haberland, H. and J. Mey
1977“Editorial: Linguistics and pragmatics.” Journal of Pragmatics 1 (1): 1–12. Crossref  BoPGoogle Scholar
Habermas, J.
1971“Vorbereitende bemerkungen zu einer theorie der kommunikativen kompetenz.” In ed. by J. Habermas and N. Luhmann, Theorie der Gesellschaft oder Sozialtechnologie. Berlin: Suhrkamp. Crossref  BoPGoogle Scholar
1979“What is universal pragmatics?” In J. Habermas, Communication and the Evolution of Society, 1–68. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
Halliday, M.A.K.
1973Explorations in the Functions of Language. London: Edward Arnold.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Hanks, W.F., S. Ide and Y. Katagiri
(eds.) 2009“Towards an emancipatory pragmatics.” Special issue of Journal of Pragmatics 41 (1): 1–156. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Heringer, H.J.
1978Practical semantics. The Hague: Mouton. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hickey, L.
(ed.) 1989The pragmatics of style. London. Routledge.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Hilbert, R.A.
1992The classical roots of ethnomethodology. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Holden, C.
1993“New life ahead for social sciences.” Science 261: 1796–1798. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Huang, Y.
2007Pragmatics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Hutchby, I. and R. Wooffitt
1998Conversation analysis: Principles, practices, and applications. Cambridge: Polity Press.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Hymes, D.
1972“On communicative competence.” In Sociolinguistics, ed. by J.B. Pride and J. Holmes, 269–293. Harmondsworth: Penguin.  BoPGoogle Scholar
1974Foundations in sociolinguistics. Cambridge: Tavistock.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Jakobson, R.
1960“Concluding remarks: Linguistics and poetics.” In Style in language, ed. by Thomas A. Sebeok, 350–377. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
1970Main Trends in the Science of Language. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
Jaszczolt, K.
2005Default semantics: Foundations of a compositional theory of acts of communication. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  BoP CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Jaworski, A., N. Coupland and D. Galasiński
(eds.) 2004Metalanguage: Social and ideological perspectives. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Crossref  BoPGoogle Scholar
Johansen, J.D. and H. Sonne
(eds.) 1986Pragmatics and linguistics. Odense: Odense University Press.Google Scholar
Kates, C.A.
1980Pragmatics and semantics. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Kempson, R.M.
1975Presupposition and the delimitation of semantics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Kerbrat-Orecchioni, C.
1980L’énonciation. Paris: Colin.  BoPGoogle Scholar
1986L'implicite. Paris: Colin.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Kroskrity, P., B. Schieffelin and K. Woolard
(eds.) 1992“Language ideologies.”Special issue of Pragmatics 2 (3): 235–449.  BoP CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Lakoff, G.
1972“Linguistics and natural logic.” In ed. by D. Davidson and G. Harman, 545–665. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Lakoff, G. and M. Johnson
1980Metaphors we live by. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Lakoff, R.
1989“The way we were.” Journal of Pragmatics 13 (6): 939–988. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Langacker, R.
1987Foundations of cognitive grammar. Stanford: Stanford University Press.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Latraverse, F.
1987La pragmatique. Brussels: Mardaga. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Leech, G.
1983Principles of pragmatics. London: Longman.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Levinson, S.C.
1983Pragmatics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
2000Presumptive meanings. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
2003Space in language and cognition: Explorations in cognitive diversity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Lucy, J.A.
(ed.) 1993Reflexive language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Lyons, J.
1977Semantics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Martin, R.M.
1979Pragmatics, truth, and language. Dordrecht: Reidel. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Mathesius, V.
1928“On linguistic characterology with illustrations from modern english.” Proceedings of the 1st International Congress of Linguists 56–63.  BoP
Mccawley, J.D.
1972“A program for logic.” In ed. by D. Davidson and G. Harman, 498–544. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
1995“« generative semantics.»” In Handbook of Pragmatics: Manual, ed. by J. Verschueren, J.-O. Östman and J. Blommaert, 311–319. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Mead, G.H.
1934Mind, self, and society: From the standpoint of a social behaviorist. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Mey, J.L.
1985Whose language?Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
1993Pragmatics. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Minsky, M.
1977“Frame-system theory.” In Thinking, ed. by P.N. Johnson-Laird and P.C. Wason, 355–376. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Moeschler, J.
1996Théorie pragmatique et pragmatique conversationnelle. Paris: Armand Colin.Google Scholar
Moeschler, J. and A. Reboul
1994Dictionnaire encyclopédique de pragmatique. Paris: Editions du Seuil.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Montague, R.
1974Formal philosophy. New Haven: Yale University Press.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Morris, C.
1938Foundations of the theory of signs (= Foundations of the unity of science I:2). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.  BoPGoogle Scholar
1971Writings on the general theory of signs. The Hague: Mouton. Crossref  BoPGoogle Scholar
Nerlich, B. and D.D. Clarke
1996Language, action and context: The early history of pragmatics in europe and america, 1780-1930. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref  BoPGoogle Scholar
Norris, S. and R.H. Jones
2005Discourse in action: Introducing mediated discourse analysis. London: Routledge.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Noveck, I.A. and D. Sperber
(eds.) 2004Experimental pragmatics. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Crossref  BoPGoogle Scholar
Nuyts, J. and J. Verschueren
1987A comprehensive bibliography of pragmatics ( 4 vols.). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref  BoPGoogle Scholar
Ochs, E.
1988Culture and language development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Östman, J.-O.
1986Pragmatics as implicitness. Ph.D. diss., University of California at Berkeley.Google Scholar
Parret, H.
1983Semiotics and pragmatics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.  BoP CrossrefGoogle Scholar
1980Le langage en contexte. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.  BoP CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Parret, H., M. Sbisà and J. Verschueren
(eds.) 1981Possibilities and limitations of pragmatics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.  BoP CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Perkins, M.
2007Pragmatic impairment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Pratt, M.L.
1977Toward a speech act theory of literary discourse. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
Reboul, A. and J. Moeschler
2005Pragmatique du discours: De l'interprétation de l’énoncé à l'interprétation du discours. Paris: Armand Colin.Google Scholar
Recanati, F.
1979La transparence et l’énonciation. Paris: Editions du Seuil.  BoPGoogle Scholar
1981Les énoncés performatifs. Paris: Editions de Minuit.  BoPGoogle Scholar
2010Truth-conditional pragmatics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  BoP CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Robinson, D.
2006Introducing performative pragmatics. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Ross, J.R.
1972“Act.” In ed. by D. Davidson and G. Harman, 70–126. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Roulet, E.
1980“Modalité et illocution.” Communications 32: 216–239. Crossref  BoPGoogle Scholar
Sacks, H., E.A. Schegloff and G. Jefferson
1974“A simplest systematics for the organization of turn-taking for conversation.” Language 50 (4): 696–735. Crossref  BoPGoogle Scholar
Salazar Orvig, A.
1999Les mouvements du discours: Style, référence et dialogue dans les entretiens cliniques. Paris: L’Harmattan.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Sapir, E.
1929“The status of linguistics as a science.” Language 5: 207–214. Crossref  BoPGoogle Scholar
1966Culture, language and personality. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Sbisà, M.
1989Linguaggio, ragione, interazione. Milan: Il Mulino.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Schegloff, E.A.
2007Sequence organization in interaction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref  BoPGoogle Scholar
Schlieben-Lange, B.
1975Linguistische pragmatik. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Schmidt, S.J.
(ed.) 1974Pragmatik I. München: Fink.Google Scholar
Searle, J.R.
1969Speech acts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
1975“Indirect speech acts.” In Syntax and Semantics, vol. 3, ed. by P. Cole and J.L. Morgan, 59–82. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Searle, J.R., H. Parret and J. Verschueren
1992(On) searle on conversation. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref  BoPGoogle Scholar
Searle, J.R., F. Kiefer and M. Bierwisch
(eds.) 1980Speech act theory and pragmatics. Dordrecht: Reidel.  BoP CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Sgall, P. and E. Hajičová
1977“Focus on focus.” Prague Bulletin of Mathematical Linguistics 28: 5–54.Google Scholar
Sherzer, J.
1987“A discourse-centered approach to language and culture.” American Anthropologist 89 (2): 295–309. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Silverstein, M.
1979“Language structure and linguistic ideology.” In The Element, ed. by P.R. Clyne, W.F. Hanks and C.L. Hofbauer, 193–247. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.Google Scholar
Smith, B.R. and E. Leinonen
1992Clinical pragmatics. London: Chapman and Hall.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Sperber, D. and D. Wilson
1986Relevance: Communication and cognition. Oxford: Blackwell.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Stati, S.
1990Le transphrastique. Paris: Presses University de France.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Steinberg, D.D. and L.A. Jakobovits
(eds.) 1971Semantics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Steiner, E.H. and R. Veltman
(eds.) 1988Pragmatics, discourse and text. London: Pinter.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Talmy, L.
1978“Figure and ground in complex sentences.” In Universals of Human Language, vol. 4, ed. by J.H. Greenberg, 625–649. Stanford: Stanford University Press.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Thayer, H.S.
(ed.) 1970Pragmatism. New York: Mentor.Google Scholar
Thomas, J.
1995Meaning in interaction: An introduction to pragmatics. London: Longman.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Todorov, T.
1981Mikhaïl bakhtine. Paris: Editions du Seuil.Google Scholar
Tomasello, M.
1999The cultural origins of human cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Vanderveken, D.
1988Les actes de discours. Brussels: Mardaga. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Verschueren, J.
1978“Reflections on presupposition failure.” Journal of Pragmatics 2 (2): 107–151. Crossref  BoPGoogle Scholar
1985 “Review article on Geoffrey N. Leech, Principles of pragmatics, and Stephen C. Levinson, Pragmatics .” Journal of Linguistics 21: 459–470. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
1994“Meaning in a theory of pragmatics.” Proceedings of the 20th Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society : 553–562  BoP Crossref
1995a“The pragmatic return to meaning.” Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 5: 127–156. Crossref  BoPGoogle Scholar
1995b“Linguistic pragmatics and semiotics.” Semiotica 104 (1/2): 45–65. Crossref  BoPGoogle Scholar
1999Understanding pragmatics. London: Edward Arnold / New York: Oxford University Press.  BoPGoogle Scholar
2008“Context and structure in a theory of pragmatics.” Studies in Pragmatics 10: 14–24.Google Scholar
2011“IPrA, the international pragmatics association, at 25.” SemiotiX New Series http://​www​.semioticon​.com​/semiotix​/2011​/10​/ipra​-the​-international​-pragmatics​-association​-at​-25/.Google Scholar
2012Ideology in language use: Pragmatic guidelines for empirical research. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Forthcoming. “The european perspective view.” In The Oxford Handbook of Pragmatic ed. by Y. Huang
(ed.) 1991aPragmatics at issue. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.  BoP CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(ed.) 1991bLevels of linguistic adaptation. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.  BoP CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Verschueren, J. and M. Bertuccelli Papi
(eds.) 1987The pragmatic perspective. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.  BoP CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Vygotsky, L.
1986Thought and language. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Watzlawick, P., J. Beavin Bavelas and D.D. Jackson
1967Pragmatics of human communication. Norton and Company.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Weiser, A.
1974“Deliberate ambiguity.” Papers from the 10th Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistics Society : 723–731.  BoP
Wilson, D. and D. Sperber
2012Meaning and relevance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Winch, P.
1958The idea of a social science and its relation to philosophy. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
Winkin, Y.
1981La nouvelle communication. Paris: Editions du Seuil.Google Scholar
Wittgenstein, L.
1953Philosophische untersuchungen. Oxford: Blackwell. Crossref  BoPGoogle Scholar
Wunderlich, D.
(ed.) 1972Linguistische pragmatik. Frankfurt: Athenäum.  BoPGoogle Scholar
Yule, G.
1996Pragmatics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  BoPGoogle Scholar