Comics in translation

Klaus Kaindl

Table of contents

Comics are believed to have originated in the US, where the first comic strips were published in the New York World in 1895. Though its roots – the socio-political caricatures of the Briton William Hogarth and the picture stories of the German author Wilhelm Busch – go back to Europe, comics only got their typical form in the wake of industrial developments in the field of mass media at the end of the 19th century. In the 20th century, comics spread from the US first to Europe and then, especially after the Second World War, to the rest of the world. As a result, the global comic market is a translation market, too – “exporters”, like the US, the Franco-Belgian area and Japan, can be distinguished from “importers”, like the German-speaking countries and the Scandinavian countries, as well as from countries where export and import largely balance each other out, like Spain and Italy.

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Further reading

Di Giovanni, Elena
2008“The Winx Club as a Challenge to Globalization. Translating from Italy to the Rest of the World.” In Comics in Translation, Federico Zanettin (ed.), 220–236.  TSBGoogle Scholar
Jüngst, Heike
2008“Translating Manga.” In Comics in Translation, Federico Zanettin (ed.), 50–78.  TSBGoogle Scholar
Kaindl, Klaus
1999“Thump, whizz, poom: A Framework for the Study of Comics under Translation.” Target 11 (2): 263–288. Crossref logo  TSBGoogle Scholar
Rota, Valerio
2008“Aspects of Adaptation. The Translation of Comics Formats.” In Comics in Translation, Federico Zanettin (ed.), 79–98.  TSBGoogle Scholar
Zitawi, Jehan
2008“Disney Comics in the Arab Culture(s). A Pragmatic Perspective.” In Comics in Translation, Federico Zanettin (ed.), 152–171.  TSBGoogle Scholar