Audiovisual Translation (AVT), although a relative newcomer within the field of Translation Studies (TS), has moved from the field’s periphery to its centre over the past two decades. The earliest form of AVT may have been translation of intertitles in silent films, but far greater needs for translation arose with the advent of ‘talking movies’ in the 1920s and the necessity of providing films with translations (so as to secure exports, especially for the US film industry). Various forms of translation were tried, even multiple language versions of one film, with subtitling and dubbing soon becoming the preferred modes. Selection between the two was determined by economic, ideological and pragmatic factors in the respective target countries. Initial research publications on AVT date from the mid-fifties and sixties, but a true research and publication boom did not occur until the early 1990s.
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2007Cinema Babel. Translating Global Cinema. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota press. TSB
2004Topics in Audiovisual Translation. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. BoP