Abi Habib, M.
(2014) February 9. Lebanon’s trilingual confusion underpins identity crisis. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from http://​blogs​.wsj​.com​/middleeast​/2014​/02​/09​/lebanons​-trilingual​-confusion​-underpins​-identity​-crisis/
Abou, S., Kasparian, C., & Haddad, K.
(1996) Anatomie de la francophonie libanaise. Beirut, Lebanon: Université Saint-Joseph.Google Scholar
Abu Assali, D.
(1998) August 13. Linguistic pluralism is a matter of class not of sectarianism. An-Nahar Newspaper, p. 14.Google Scholar
Abu Ghazaleh, A.
(1990) American missions in Syria: A study of American missionary contribution to Arab nationalism in nineteenth century Syria. Beltsville, MD: Amana Books.Google Scholar
Abu Husayn, A. R.
(2004) The view from Istanbul: Lebanon and the Druze Emirate in the Ottoman chancery documents, 1546–1711. London: I. B. Tauris.Google Scholar
Amin, T. G.
(2009) Language of instruction and science education in the Arab region: Toward a situated research agenda. In S. Boujaoude, & Z. Dagher, (Eds.), The world of science education: Arab states (pp. 61–81). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.Google Scholar
Antonius, G.
(1946) The Arab awakening: The story of the Arab national movement. New York, NY: G. P. Putnam’s Sons.Google Scholar
Arabic Language International Council (ALIC)
(2013) The Arabic language law. Dubai, UAE, ALIC.Google Scholar
Bacha, N. N., & Bahous, R.
(2011) Foreign language education in Lebanon: A context of cultural and curricular complexities. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 2 (6), 1320–1328. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Baghdadi, N.
(1998) August 13. The language of the natives. An-Nahar Newspaper, p. 14.Google Scholar
Ball, J.
(2014) Children learn better in their mother tongue: Advancing research on mother-tongue-based multilingual education. Global Partnership for Education. Retrieved from http://​www​.globalpartnership​.org​/blog​/children​-learn​-better​-their​-mother​-tongue
Bashshur, M.
(1978) The structure of the educational system in Lebanon. Beirut: Center for Educational Research and Development (in Arabic).Google Scholar
(2004) Higher education in the Arab states. Beirut: United Nations Regional Bureau for Education in the Arab States.Google Scholar
Benson, C.
(2004) The importance of mother tongue-based schooling for educational quality. (Background paper prepared for the Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2005) Retrieved from: http://​unesdoc​.unesco​.org​/images​/0014​/001466​/146632e​.pdf
Beydoun, A.
(1998) August 13. Language proficiency in our country is declining. An-Nahar Newspaper, p. 14.Google Scholar
Bühmann, D., & Trudell, B.
(2008) Mother tongue matters: Local languages as a key to effective learning. Retrieved from http://​unesdoc​.unesco​.org​/images​/0016​/001611​/161121e​.pdf
Bunyi, G.
(1999) Rethinking the place of African indigenous languages in African education. International Journal of Educational Development, 19, 337–350. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Curtis, S., & Millar, R.
(1988) Language and conceptual understanding in science: A comparison of English and Asian language speaking children. Research in Science and Technological Education, 6(1), 61–77. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Daccache, S.
(2005) Catholic missions in the Middle East. In H. Badr (Ed.), Christianity: A history in the Middle East (pp. 687–712). Beirut: Middle East Council of Churches.Google Scholar
Diab, R.
(2000) Political and socio-cultural factors in foreign language education: The case of Lebanon. Texas Papers in Foreign Language Education, 5(1), 177–187.Google Scholar
(2006) University students’ beliefs about learning English and French in Lebanon. System 34, 80–96. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2009) Lebanese EFL teachers’ beliefs about language learning. TESL Reporter, 42(2), 13–34.Google Scholar
Eido, R.
(1987) Teaching mathematics and sciences in the native language in the intermediate cycle. In Proceedings of the seminar on teaching mathematics and sciences in the native language. Beirut: Dar Al-Makassed.Google Scholar
El‐Khazen, F.
(2000) The breakdown of the state in Lebanon 1967–1976. London: I.B. Tauris in association with the Centre for Lebanese Studies.Google Scholar
Esseili, F.
(2011) English in Lebanon: Implications for national identity and language policy (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Purdue University: West Lafayette, IN.Google Scholar
Fletcher, T.
(2012) March 5. English in Lebanon: A fire worth lighting [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://​blogs​.fco​.gov​.uk​/tomfletcher​/2012​/03​/05​/english​-in​-lebanon​-a​-fire​-worth​-lighting/
Ghaleb, M., & Joseph, J.
(2000) Factors affecting students’ perceptions of the status and use of languages in Lebanon. In Shaaban, K. (Ed.), Language and education (pp. 287–306). Beirut: Lebanese Association for Educational Studies.Google Scholar
Hanks, H.
(1997) Teaching language and power. In R. Wodak & D. Corson (Eds.), Encyclopedia of language and education: Vol. 1. Language policy and political issues in education (pp. 241–251). Dordrecht: Kluwer.Google Scholar
Hudson, M.
(1997) Trying again: Power-sharing in post-civil war Lebanon. Washington, DC: Georgetown University.Google Scholar
Jarrar, S., Mikati, J., & Massialas, B.
(1988) Lebanon. In Kurian, G. (Ed.), World education encyclopedia (pp. 778–796). New York, NY: Facts on File Publications.Google Scholar
Joseph, J. E.
(2004) Language and identity: National, ethnic, religious. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Khoury, M. R.
(2003) The teaching of culture: large vs. small culture views. In R. Bahous and N. N. Bacha (Eds.), Proceedings of second regional conference on language and change (pp. 128–139). Beirut: Librairie du Liban.Google Scholar
Koussaifi, M.
(1998) What is new at Kaslik’s Business School? Campus, 2(6).Google Scholar
Makdisi, U. S.
(2008) Artillery of heaven: American missionaries and the failed conversion of the Middle East. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Muhanna, E.
(2010) The death of Arabic is greatly exaggerated. The National. Retrieved from www​.thenational​.ae​/arts​-culture​/the​-death​-of​-arabic​-is​-greatly​-exaggerated
Naamani, A.
(1979) Le Francais au Liban: Essai socio-linguistique. Jounieh, Lebanon: Imprimerie St. Paul.Google Scholar
National Center for Educational Research and Development (NCERD)
(1995) The new framework for education in Lebanon. Beirut: Author. In Arabic.Google Scholar
Nordmeyer, T.
(2009) October 6. The Lebanese dialect is certainly quirky, but it is hardly trilingual. 961 News. Retrieved from https://​illubnan​.wordpress​.com​/2009​/10​/06​/the​-lebanese​-dialect​-is​-certainly​-quirky​-but​-it​-is​-hardly​-trilingual/
Salibi, K.
(1965) Modern history of Lebanon. London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson.Google Scholar
Salibi, K. S.
(1988) A house of many mansions: The history of Lebanon reconsidered. Berkeley CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Shaaban, K.
(1990) A sociolinguistic analysis of language-related issues in the Arab world. Al-Abhath, 38, 17–35.Google Scholar
(1995) Evaluation and testing of reading in ESL. Educational evaluation II: Measurement and evaluation in English as a second language. Beirut: Hariri Foundation.Google Scholar
(1997) Bilingual education in Lebanon. In J. Cummins & D. Carson (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Education. Vol. V: Bilingual Education (pp. 251–259). Dordrecht: Kluwer.Google Scholar
(2013) Disparity between ideals and reality in curriculum construction: The case of the Lebanese English curriculum. Creative Education, 4(12B), 28–34. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Shaaban, K., & Ghaith, G.
(1999) Lebanon’s language-in-education policies: From bilingualism to trilingualism. Language Problems and Language Planning 23, 1–16. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2002) University students’ perceptions of the ethnolinguistic vitality of Arabic, French and English in Lebanon. Journal of Sociolinguistics 6(4), 557–574. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2003) Effect of religion, first foreign language, and gender on the perception of the utility of language. Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 2(1), 53–77. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Sinno, Z. S.
(2008) The impact on language learning of Lebanese students’ attitude towards English in the context of globalization and anti-Americanism (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Leicester, UK.Google Scholar
Suleiman, Y.
(1994) Nationalism and the Arabic language: A historical overview. In Suleiman, Y. (Ed.), Arabic sociolinguistics: Issues and perspectives (pp. 3–24). Richmond: Curzon Press.Google Scholar
Torres, H. N., & Zeidler, D. L.
(2002) The effects of English language proficiency and scientific reasoning skills on the acquisition of science content knowledge by Hispanic English language learners and native English language speaking students. Electronic Journal of Science Education, 6(3) Retrieved from http://​ejse​.southwestern​.edu​/article​/view​/7683​/5450
2003Education in a multilingual world: Education position paper. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
United Nations Development Program (UNDP) & Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development
(2002) Arab human development report 2002: Creating opportunities for future generations. New York, NY: UNDP.Google Scholar
United Nations Foundation for Endangered Languages
July 2002). Newsletter 19. Paris: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.
Verdeil, C.
(2006) Between Rome and France, intransigent and anti-Protestant Jesuits in the Orient: The beginning of the Jesuits’ mission of Syria, 1831–1864. In M. Tamcke & M. Marten (Eds.), Christian witness between continuity and new beginnings: Modern historical missions in the Middle East (pp. 23–32). Berlin: Lit Verlag.Google Scholar
Warschauer, M.
(2003) Dissecting the “digital divide”: A case study in Egypt. The Information Society, 19, 297–304. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Womack, D. F.
(2012) Lubnani, Libanais, Lebanese: Missionary education, language policy and identity formation in modern Lebanon. Studies in World Christianity, 18(1), 4–20. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Yazigi, R.
(1994) Perceptions of Arabic as native language and the learning of English. Language Learning Journal, 9, 68–74. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Zakharia, Z.
(2004) How schools cope with war: A case study of Lebanon. In D. Burde, T. Arnstein, C. Pagen, & Z. Zakharia (Eds.), Education in emergencies and post-conflict situations: Problems, responses, and possibilities (pp. 107–117). New York, NY: Society of International Education.Google Scholar
(2009) Positioning Arabic in schools: Language policy, national identity, and development in contemporary Lebanon. In F. Vavrus, & L. Bartlett (Eds.), Critical approaches to comparative education: Vertical case studies from Africa, Europe, the Middle East, and the Americas (pp. 215–231). Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2010) Language and vulnerability: How educational policies exacerbate inequalities in higher education. In J. Calabrese (Ed.), Higher education and the Middle East: Empowering under-served and vulnerable populations (pp. 41–44). Washington, DC: Middle East Institute Viewpoints PublicationsGoogle Scholar