Edited by Richard Smith and Tim Giesler
[AILA Applied Linguistics Series 20] 2023
► pp. 104–120
We tend to think that classroom-oriented research in language teaching is a new phenomenon. However, the Reform Movement at the end of the 19th century brought forth a wide range of innovative developments, including – for the first time – teacher-led research into classroom procedures through experimentation, systematic observation, publication and ensuing scholarly discourse. Reports by several language teachers are presented here as examples of early classroom-oriented research. The chapter outlines what these teachers were trying to achieve in their language classes, how they reported on their teaching, and what reactions ensued. Thus, it gives voice to the teachers of the late 19th century, whose work is evidence of their professionalism and shows that innovation depends on both bottom-up and top-down processes.