Archival sources (written)

Krueger Collection
Wisconsin Historical Society Library and Archives. Madison, WI.
Goth Collection
Max Kade Institute for German-American Studies. Madison, WI.

Archival sources (audio)

Helene Stratman-Thomas Collection
1937–1946Wisconsin Folksong Collection, Mills Music Library, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Madison, WI.Google Scholar
Lester W.J. “Smoky” Seifert Collection
1945–1949Sound Archives of the Max Kade Institute for German-American Studies. Madison, WI.Google Scholar
Litty-Evans Collection
2013Wisconsin German Project, Sound Archives of the Max Kade Institute for German-American Studies. Madison, WI.Google Scholar

Secondary sources

Alba, Richard
2004Language assimilation today: Bilingualism persists more than in the past, but English still dominates. [URL] (21 December 2022).
Alba, Richard, John Logan, Amy Lutz & Brian Stults
2002Only English by the third generation? Loss and preservation of the mother tongue among the grandchildren of contemporary immigrants.” Demography 39(3). 467–484. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Ali, Ahmed Abdellaty, Jan Van der Spiegel & Paul Mueller
2001Robust classification of stop consonants using auditory-based speech processing. In Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing: Proceedings ICASSP’01, 81–84. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Allen, Sean, Joanne Miller & David DeSteno
2003Individual talker differences in voice–onset–time. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 113(1). 544–552. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Angelowa, Tanja & Bernd Pompino-Marschall
1985Zur akustischen Struktur initialer Plosiv-Vokal-Silben im Deutschen und Bulgarischen. Forschungsbericht des Instituts für Phonetik und Sprachliche Kommunikation der Universität München 21. 83–96.Google Scholar
Auer, Anita, Catharina Peersman, Simon Pickl, Gijsbert Rutten & Rik Vosters
2015Historical sociolinguistics: the field and its future. Journal of Historical Sociolinguistics 1(1). 1–12. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Bagwell, Angela, Samantha Litty & Mike Olson
2019Wisconsin immigrant letters: German influence and imposition on Wisconsin English. In Raymond Hickey (ed.), Keeping in Touch. Emigrant Letters across the English-speaking World, 27–41. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Blumstein, Sheila, Emily Myers & Jesse Rissman
2005The perception of voice onset time: an fMRI investigation of phonetic category structure. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 17(9). 1353–1366. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Boersma, Paul & David Weenink
2022Praat: doing phonetics by computer [Computer program]. Version 6.2.09. [URL] (20 February 2022).
Bousquette, Joshua
2020From bidialectal to bilingual: Evidence for two-stage language shift in Lester W. J. ‘Smoky’ Seifert’s 1946–1949 Wisconsin German Recordings. American Speech 95(4). 485–523. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Chen, Matthew
1970Vowel length variation as a function of the voicing of the consonant environment. Phonetica 22(3). 129–159. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Dmtrieva, Olga, Allard Jongman & Joan Sereno
2010Phonological neutralization by native and non-native speakers: The case of Russian final devoicing. Journal of Phonetics 38(3). 483–492. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Eichhoff, Jürgen
1971German in Wisconsin. In Glenn Gilbert (ed.), The German language in America: A symposium. Austin: University of Texas Press, 43–57.Google Scholar
Elspaß, Stephan
2012The use of private letters and diaries in sociolinguistic investigation. In Juan Manuel Hernández-Campoy & Juan Camilo Conde-Silvestre (eds.), The handbook of historical sociolinguistics, 156–169. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Fishman, Joshua
1972The sociology of language. Rowley: Newbury.Google Scholar
Frey, Benjamin
2013Toward a general theory of language shift: A case study in Wisconsin German and North Carolina Cherokee. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin. PhD dissertation.
Geiger, Stephen & Joseph Salmons
2006Reconstructing variation at shallow time depths.: The historical phonetics of 19th century German dialects in the U.S. In Thomas Cravens (ed.), Variation and reconstruction, 37–58. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Hickey, Raymond
(ed.) 2017Listening to the past: Audio records of accents of English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Hirsh, Ira
1959Auditory perception of temporal order. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 31(6). 759–767. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Howell, Robert
1993German immigration and the development of regional variants of American English: Using contact theory to discover our roots. In Joseph Salmons (ed.), The German language in America: 1683–1991, 188–212. Madison, WI: Max Kade Institute.Google Scholar
Iverson, Gregory & Joseph Salmons
1995Aspiration and laryngeal representation in Germanic. Phonology 12(3). 369–396. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
2011Final devoicing and final laryngeal neutralization. In Marc Van Oostendorp, Colin Ewen, Elizabeth Hume & Keren Rice (eds.), The Blackwell companion to phonology, 1622–1643. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Jessen, Michael
1998Phonetics and phonology of tense and lax obstruents in German. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
Keating, Patricia
1984Phonetic and phonological representation of stop consonant voicing. Language 60(2). 286–319. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Khattab, Ghada
2002VOT production in English and Arabic bilingual and monolingual children. In Dilworth Parkinson & Elabbas Benmamoun (eds.), Perspectives on Arabic linguistics: Papers from the Annual Symposium on Arabic Linguistics, 1–37. Amsterdam: John Banjamins. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Labov, William
1972Sociolinguistic patterns. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
Lisker, Leigh & Arthur Abramson
1964A cross-language study of voicing in initial stops: Acoustical measurements. Word 20(3). 384–422. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Litty, Samantha
2014Stop. Hey, what’s that sound? Initial VOT in Wisconsin German and English. Paper presented at the 20th Annual Germanic Linguistics Annual Conference (GLAC), May 2–3, 2014. Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana.
Litty, Samantha, Christine Evans & Joseph Salmons
2015Gray zones: The fluidity of Wisconsin German language and identification. In Peter Rosenberg (ed.), Linguistic construction of ethnic borders, 183–205. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
Litty, Samantha
2017aA turn of the century courtship. Sociolinguistica 31(1). 83–100. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
2017bWe talk German now yet: The sociolinguistic development of voice onset time and final obstruent neutralization in Wisconsin German and English varieties, 1863–2013. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin. PhD dissertation.
2019Letters home: German-American Civil War soldiers’ letters 1864–1865. Journal of Historical Sociolinguistics 5(2). 1–34. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Litty, Samantha, Jennifer Mercer & Joseph Salmons
2019Early immigrant English: Midwestern English before the dust settled. In Sandra Jansen, Markus Huber & Lucia Siebers (eds.), Processes of change in English: Studies in Late Modern and present-day English, 115–137. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Litty, Samantha
2022Historical sociolinguistic contexts: Networks and feature availability in 19th-century German letter collections. In Kelly Biers & Joshua Brown (eds.), Selected Proceedings of the 11th Annual Workshop on Immigrant Languages in the Americas (WILA 11), 40–47. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla.Google Scholar
Forthcoming. The German Midwest. In Jon Lauck ed. The Oxford Handbook of Midwestern History Oxford Oxford University Press
Nagy, Naomi, Joanna Chociej & Michol Hoffman
2014Analyzing ethnic orientation in the quantitative sociolinguistic paradigm. Language & Communication 35. 9–26. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Niyogi, Partha & Padma Ramesh
1998Incorporating voice onset time to improve letter recognition accuracies. In Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, 1998. Volume 1, 13–16. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Nove, Chaya
2021Outcomes of language contact in New York Hasidic Yiddish. In Christian Zimmer (ed.), German(ic) in language contact: Grammatical and sociolinguistic dynamics, 43–71. Berlin: Language Science Press.Google Scholar
Olson, Daniel
2013Bilingual language switching and selection at the phonetic level: Asymmetrical transfer in VOT production. Journal of Phonetics 41(6). 407–420. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Özaslan, Merve & Christoph Gabriel
2019Final obstruent devoicing in English and French as foreign languages: Comparing monolingual German and bilingual Turkish-German learners. In Christoph Gabriel, Jonas Grünke & Sylvia Thiele (eds.), Romanische Sprachen in ihrer Vielfalt: Brückenschläge zwischen linguistischer Theoriebildung und Fremdsprachenunterricht, 177–209. Stuttgart: ibidem.Google Scholar
Purnell, Thomas, Joseph Salmons & Dilara Tepeli
2005aGerman substrate effects in Wisconsin English: Evidence for final fortition. American Speech 80(2). 135–164. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Purnell, Thomas, Joseph Salmons, Dilara Tepeli & Jennifer Mercer
2005bStructured heterogeneity and change in laryngeal phonetics Upper Midwestern final obstruents. Journal of English Linguistics 33(4). 307–338. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Seifert, Lester
1993The development and survival of the German language in Pennsylvania and Wisconsin. In Joseph Salmons (ed.), The German language in America, 322–337. Madison, WI: Max Kade Institute for German-American Studies, University of Wisconsin-Madison.Google Scholar
Sevinç, Yeşim & Ad Backus
2017Anxiety, language use and linguistic competence in an immigrant context: a vicious circle? International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 22(3). 706–724. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Stevens, Kenneth & Dennis Klatt
1974Role of formant transitions in the voiced-voiceless distinction for stops. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 55(3). 653–659. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Stoehr, Antje, Titia Benders, Janet Van Hell & Paula Fikkert
2017Second language attainment and first language attrition: The case of VOT in immersed Dutch–German late bilinguals. Second Language Research 33(4). 483–518. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Taylor, Dennis
1975The inadequacy of bipolarity and distinctive features: the German “voiced/voiceless” consonants. In Peter Reich (ed.), Second LACUS forum, 107–119. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Circle.Google Scholar
Thomas, Erik
2011Sociophonetics: An introduction. London: Palgrave Macmillan. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Trudgill, Peter
2004New-dialect formation: The inevitability of colonial Englishes. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Wilkerson, Miranda & Joseph Salmons
2008“Good old immigrants of yesteryear,” who didn’t learn English: Germans in Wisconsin. American Speech. 83(3). 259–283.Google Scholar
2012Linguistic marginalities: Becoming American without learning English. Journal of Transnational American Studies 4(2). [URL] DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Wright, Laura
(ed.) 2006The development of Standard English, 1300–1800: Theories, descriptions, conflicts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar